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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 39/2008 (Nov 24, 2008)
FTTH becomes a reality. FTTH networks (Fiber To The Home) began to compete with traditional ADSL2+ broadband services. In a new (paid) report, Tariff Consultancy Ltd. provides data on FFTH services of the main FTTH providers in 19 European countries, including price levels. The levels are comparable with those of access services based on ADSL technology and cable TV networks.
There is a growing number of operators that offer 100 Mbps services for very competitive prices. Japanese NEC BIGLOBE Ltd. sells such a service for about 30 EUR per month.
In the U.S. market, the most popular name for service based on FTTH is FiOS (Fiber Optic Service). Verizon, a leading FiOS operator, has 1.2 million FiOS TV customers and 1.8 million FiOS Internet connections. Broadband Internet access (50 Mb/s - download, 20 Mb/s - upload) costs $140 a month, 348 standard definition TV channels and 55 HD channels cost $58 a month.
FTTH services are also a growing threat to traditional broadband providers - cable TV operators. However, they can upgrade the existing coaxial access networks using the DOCSIS 3.0 standard to support high-speed traffic up to 120-160 Mb/s per household.
The strongest competition among European FFTH providers takes place in countries where a number of utility and municipal providers sell fiber capacity to different operators (Scandinavia, Holland).
Similarly to ADSL services usually offered as a Triple Play, FFTH operators propose similar packages allowing to increase their profits that may not be satisfactory in the case of providing "pure" Internet access.
The great potential of FFTH technology allows to offer advanced Triple Play services (Internet, phone, TV) enriched with TV/Video/Music on Demand, Symmetrical Bandwidth, Storage.
Classification of fiber-optics solutions within the "last mile" (the source: Wikipedia)
  • FTTX - Fiber to the X - a general term for describing network architecture that uses optical fiber to replace all or part (X) of the usual copper local loop used for telecommunications;
  • FTTN - Fiber to the node / neighborhood, FTTCab - fiber to the cabinet - the fiber goes to the local node of the network or to telecommunications enclosure - the subscribers (up to several hundred) are connected from this place via twisted pair wiring or coaxial cable, at distances up to 1.5 km;
  • FTTC- Fiber to the curb, FTTK - fiber to the kerb (GB) - the fiber goes to the very local node / telecommunications enclosure close to the building/s - the subscribers (up to several dozen) are connected from this place via twisted pair wiring or coaxial cables, at distances up to 300 m;
  • FTTB - Fiber to the building - the subscribers (living/working in the building) are connected with a different technology;
  • FTTH - Fiber to the home - the fiber reaches the end user (a residential or commercial customer).
Satellite installation in new university campus. The requirements of the investor - Jagiellonian University (UJ) in Krakow - included design and installation of antenna system and distribution network capable of providing satellite and terrestrial TV channels. An additional request was possibility of easy combining of digital terrestrial programs in the future, without a need of changing amplifiers or making any modifications, as well as distribution of video from other sources (e.g. DVD players). In the case of satellite programs, there were taken into consideration selected FTA channels and, optionally, some pay-TV broadcasts.

The tender was won by ZSK company (the website in Polish), a supplier of integrated IT, telecommunication, and automation solutions based on the latest technologies. The contractor decided to use ALCAD headend and ZG-401/601 channel amplifiers. The employed ALCAD equipment features low noise (C/N > 60 dB) and ensures high reliability of the SMATV system. Channel amplifiers allow to connect RF modulators that are used for distribution of educational content from DVD players etc.

Currently the installation allows to receive eight satellite channels that can be distributed to 200 outlets. The headend receives FTA channels. After installing CA modules (e.g. A9944) and using appropriate smart card/s there can be distributed pay channels. The cabling is based on TRISET-113 E1015 cable and Signal equipment.
The investor had positive opinion on ALCAD devices due to reliable operation of the equipment in other buildings of the campus. Once more the results have been very satisfactory for the university.
The UJ campus
Alcad headend
ULTISYSTEM for schools. At nights CCTV systems in schools often work without operators - the images from outdoor cameras cannot by analyzed in real time (the indoor cameras/systems usually have automatic alarm functions). In the case of acts of vandalism committed by unknown or masked people, only a quick intervention of the police could minimize the losses and help to catch the perpetrators. A good solution is transmission of the images directly to a professional city monitoring center. It extends the city surveillance system over these schools' surroundings.
So far, the attempts of combining IP CCTV systems in cities with local analog CCTV installations did not provide satisfactory results. Use of ULTIMAX DVRs in schools offers new prospects for integration of these local systems with city surveillance. The platform which integrates the systems is ULTISYSTEM suite, based on popular and reliable NETSTATION software.
In the case of city systems managed by NETSTATION, it is enough to upgrade the software to ULTISYSTEM.
ULTISYSTEM allows to connect analog CCTV installation in a school (the DVR and cameras on the right) to city IP surveillance
CCTV system for a home or small store. The cost of a monitoring system for such a place is now comparable with the cost of an alarm system. The M85039 DVR, equipped with M89230 HDD, can storage complete video data for several days. It also allows to get access to the camera images over the Internet.
As outdoor cameras, the customers usually prefer compact devices with built-in IR illuminators, e.g. M11234, M11278, which can operate 24h in virtually all weather conditions.
For indoor applications, a universal model for general observation is M10730.
Color CCTV Camera: U-cam 110 (without lens)Color CCTV Camera: U-cam 110 (without lens)Color CCTV Camera: U-cam 110 (without lens)Outdoor Color CCTV Camera: VF-515 IR/B<br /> (with 4-9 mm varifocal lens and IR illuminator)Digital Video Recorder: CPD560 (4-ch, MPEG-4, SATA, LAN)
Decoders/transcoders of video streams transmitted in Ethernet networks. It often happens that analog CCTV systems based on DVRs have to be extended by additional PTZ cameras, situated at long distances (e.g. several hundred meters) from the main locations. Typical wired solutions (CCTV cable and twisted pair for PTZ control) are often difficult or impossible to implement in real environment. The way out is application of IP cameras and wireless links. The video streams, sent wirelessly, can be changed into analog form by the transcoders ACTi ACD-3100 K2413. The device decodes MPEG-4 stream from an IP source (IP camera or video server of ACTi) and converts it (in real time) to high-quality analog video and audio.
The IP PTZ camera can be controlled with a standard system control unit for analog PTZ cameras, e.g. KB-2000-3A K9152, connected to the transcoder via RS-485 interface.

All the devices mentioned above can be an integrated part of ULTISYSTEM, a unique surveillance suite combining local CCTV installations with an IP system, usually city surveillance.
Transcoder ACTi ACD-3100
System Control Unit: KB-2000-3A
Decoder (transcoder) ACTi ACD-3100ACTi ACD-3100
K2413
System control unit
KB-2000-3AKB-2000-3A
K9152
How to organize Monitoring Center - video recording. Access to the archives has to be strictly limited to authorized persons. All sessions have to be registered in system log. However, the precautions should not interfere with normal operation of the system.
One of the most important requirements is a defined period of time when the data is safely stored and protected against deleting.
Modern IP CCTV systems are managed by software that allows to configure access rights according to the needs of the administrator. The administrator can limit the rights of particular users to access individual cameras, to control some PTZ devices, to view archives from specified locations etc. The system may be made accessible only from defined locations, within specified time windows.
The main requirements for modern Monitoring Center:
  • the archives / archiving devices have to be physically protected from access of unauthorized persons,
  • the system has to support multi-level access control based on passwords (basic operations, access to the archives, system configuration),
  • the system should enable continuous operation (UPS protection),
  • storage capacity should match the intended period of saving the data.
Configuration of access rights in ULTISYSTEM
Access point modes (example device: TP-Link TL-WA501G N2940) - part 3. Access Point is a device that connects wireless network to a wired system. So it has to have at least two interfaces: wireless - WLAN - using 802.11 standard, and wired - LAN - using 802.3 standard.
In the last issue we described Access Point, Access Point Client, and Repeater modes. Below we outline next modes: Bridge (Point to Point) and Bridge (Point to Point) with AP mode.
Bridge (Point to Point) - the mode for creating direct Point-to-Point links, i.e. wireless bridges. It uses static routing based on the MAC addresses of the Access Points. This mode allows to connect distant parts of wired networks. The links are protected against access from other devices, e.g. popular wireless cards. For this mode it is recommended to use devices coming from the same manufacturer, due to lack of suitable standards.
Access Point: TP-Link TL-WA501G <br />(AP/APC/WDS 2.4GHz, eXtended Range)Access Point: TP-Link TL-WA501G <br />(AP/APC/WDS 2.4GHz, eXtended Range)
Bridge mode (Point to Point)
Bridge (Point to Point) with AP mode - combination of functionality of Bridge and Access Point modes. The point-to-point connection does not eliminate possibility of connecting wireless clients.
Access Point: TP-Link TL-WA501G <br />(AP/APC/WDS 2.4GHz, eXtended Range)Wireless CardBus Adapter: TP-Link TL-WN510G (2.4GHz 54Mbps, eXtended Range)Wireless USB Adapter: TP-Link TL-WN321G (2.4GHz 54Mbps)Access Point: TP-Link TL-WA501G <br />(AP/APC/WDS 2.4GHz, eXtended Range)
Combination of Bridge (Point to Point) and Access Point modes
In the next part we will describe Bridge (Point to Multi-Point) and Bridge (Point to Multi-Point) with AP mode.
Protection of WLAN - part 2. Another way of protecting wireless network is MAC address filtering.
The example device is TP-LINK TL-WR542G N2950. To configure MAC address filtering the user has to log in and enter the Wireless MAC/Filtering menu.
The screenshot below shows how to configure the TP-LINK TL-WR542G N2950. The wireless card with the 00-19-E0-88-C9-EE MAC address has been allowed to connect to the network.
View of MAC address filtering menu in TP-LINK TL-WR542 N2950
In the next issue we will present IP address filtering.
We have written about:

CCTV cables. The cables used in CCTV systems often have to be quite long, both in the case of video and power transmission. There is no big problem with long-distance video transmission. Our tests show that CAMSET 50 75-0.59/3.7 M6050 cable can transmit video up to 300-400 meters without perceptible loss of quality.
Using Ohm's law - a camera of 245 mA consumption can be powered via CAMSET 50 M6050 cable over a distance of about 60 m. Using CAMSET 100 M6100 the distance doubles to about 120 m...
- archive DWR of Sept. 15, 2008

Instructions on how to install compress BNC connectors
onto CAMSET cables
The article shows the process of preparing the CAMSET M6000, high performance CCTV cable, and professional compression BNC connector - E8293...
- Library

ULTIMAX - DVRs for demanding customers - maps in remote client software. Distributed video surveillance systems and systems with a large number of cameras should enable the operator to easily locate the camera capturing the image, or the sequence of cameras that follow a moving object. Camera names or numbers are in such systems inadequate for effective operation...
- archive DWR of June 16, 2008

Index of published issues

ULTISYSTEM - integration of analog cameras and IP devices <br />into one system
 
George Popescu
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