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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 42/2008 (Dec. 15, 2008)
How are things with MPEG compression? The family of MPEG-4 standards, using much more efficient algorithms than in the case of MPEG-2, was adopted as the basis for efficient compression for audio and video streaming. After the MPEG-4 SP/ASP (MPEG-4 Part 2), the version that came into widespread use was MPEG-4 Part 10, also designated as MPEG-4 AVC, H.264 or H264/AVC.
The first version of H.264/AVC standard was established in May 2003. It was significantly expanded in March 2005 (by adding High x profiles) and in November 2007 (Annex G - Scalable Video Coding - an addition that allows to choose the quality level corresponding to the application or capabilities of the playback device) - the 8th version of this standard. There are some finishing touches still to be done, over a collection of minor amendments and improvements. The standard also awaits introduction of Multi-view coding (allowing choice of observation point - for Free viewpoint TV (FTV) and 3D TV applications). H.264/AVC coding is used, among other things, in Blu-ray technology, and has been included in the digital television project (DVB), both for satellite and terrestrial broadcasting. It allows effective HDTV encoding.
H264/AVC is also used to broadcast over the Internet (IPTV), among others, it is employed by the German Deutsche Telecom. This compression becomes the mainstream of modern monitoring systems based on IP CCTV technology, and provides the most effective and cost-efficient means of data transmission and storage.
The higher numbers of MPEG standards (MPEG-7 and MPEG-21) do not directly relate to compression algorithms, but constitute a kind of "meta-standards". MPEG-7, using XML language, describes the content of the material/transmission. In MPEG-4 streams, through various types of indexing, it enables the user to get quick access to the interesting fragments. In most applications, the basis of indexation is the time code. MPEG-21, also based on XML, defines the rights/restrictions on the use of digital media, imposed by their authors, producers and distributors.
H.264/AVC captures CCTV.
This kind of compression allows to reduce bandwidth and disc space consumption
up to 50% in comparison with MPEG-4 SP.
Multiswitch installations in 24-apartment houses. In Zastow near Krakow the investor has built 3 apartment houses, each with 24 apartments. Planning to sell fully finished apartments, the entrepreneur commissioned RTVPROJEKT company (Polish version only) to do multiswitch installation for receiving (in each apartment) Astra and HotBird broadcasts and terrestrial TV.
RTVPROJEKT decided to perform the task in two stages. The first stage, the cabling, was installed by the subcontractor - Swietlik company from Krakow. The installation has been based on the coaxial cable TRISET-113 E1015, especially suitable for multiswitch systems, due to high screening efficiency and perfect matching.
The multiswitches and amplifiers were installed in the second stage, just before putting the buildings to use. Every house has been equipped with identical installation. Two staircases in each house required to use two SS-510 R70516 taps for division into subnetworks. The signals are provided by two TERRA MSR-912 multiswitches.
Terrestrial signals are processed by a set of ZG channel amplifiers. A great advantage of ZG amplifiers is high selectivity, i.e. capability of filtering the desired signal from the spectrum on the input and possibility of individual level adjustment for each channel. 2-year manufacturer's warranty protects the installer and user against any surprise.
The output levels set at 106 dBuV allow to provide signals between 62 and 82 dBuV in the subscriber outlets.
The equipment is protected against thunderstorms with Signal TV-Sat Surge Protector. The installation company used professional F-connectors E80274, enabling them to make high quality connections, quickly and efficiently.
The installation is prepared for future distribution of video signals from CCTV cameras, which will be available on TV screens of the residents. The SMATV system maintains the high standard of the buildings and provides a variety of excellent signals, fulfilling all requirements of the investor.

The author got "Chameleon mug".
How to get "Chameleon mug"?
In the lower left corner - SS-510 R70516 tap, with Signal R48602 surge protectors on its top sockets
SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-510SAT/TV TAP: Terra SS-5109/12 Multiswitch: Terra MSR-912 (active terrestrial path)9/12 Multiswitch: Terra MSR-912 (active terrestrial path)Antenna
Block diagram of the multiswitch installation in the 24-apartment house
Hybrid CCTV systems based on ACTi devices. Hybrid installations employ the existing analog equipment and convert the systems from analog to digital transmission using IP protocol. The transition is made with the use of video servers connecting the analog cameras with IP network. The devices are also equipped with analog video outputs used for connecting DVRs (recording) or video monitors (monitoring).
The images transmitted over the IP network can be received in any location and converted into analog form by decoders of video stream (transcoders) connected to the LAN or WAN network. They decode the MJPEG/MPEG-4 stream and convert it back to analog video. It allows to use the existing analog monitors.

The list of ACTi devices.
ULTISYSTEM - a unique surveillance suit with distinction - scalable server-client architecture. ULTISYSTEM platform, thanks to advanced network functions, allows to create large networks composed of many servers and clients. ULTISYSTEM K3204, K3208, K3212, K3216 or K3232 integrates IP cameras, video servers, and ULTIMAX DVRs and enables simultaneous connection of up to 999 clients (with client program or Internet browser installed on a desktop or laptop computer, or with Java applets installed on a handheld).
Free ULTISYSTEM client program (VDR-C) allows connection with up 16 servers that can control up to 512 cameras, and can display images from up to 64 of them at the same time (the cameras can be dynamically chosen from the whole set). Due to "address book" utility, the program can create any number of groups of such connections. This potential of ULTISYSTEM software allows to monitor a lot of locations from anywhere in the world.
4-channel video server from ACTi. ACD-2200 K2118 codes 4 video signals into MJPEG/MPEG-4 video streams, with D1 resolution at 25/30 fps. Unlike the popular K2115 model, the new server enables compression of four analog video signals into four separate video streams - for transmission in Ethernet networks (LAN, WAN). The streams can be further processed on an individual basis. It provides much better results than in the case of the mentioned Quad model. To sum up, ACD-2200 K2118 can be used instead of four ACD-2100 K2113 servers, which is a cheaper and more compact solution.
Video Server: ACTi ACD-2200 (4-ch + MPEG-4 audio)
Video server ACTi ACD-2200
Operational status of TP-LINK TL-WR543G N2955. TP-LINK TL-WR543G is a wireless router which integrates 4-port switch, firewall, NAT-router and Access Point. In AP Client Router mode it provides wireless access to the Internet with the support of WISP mode. It is very useful function in the case of a wireless provider.
Thanks to the LED indicators on the front panel the user can easily know the operational status of the device.
Front panel of TP-LINK TL-WR543G
Operational status table

Indicator name

(light on/off/flashing)




No power


Power OK







Non-operational (hardware error)



No wireless connection with router


Active wireless connection with router

WAN, 1, 2, 3, 4


No wired connection to router/port x


Improper wired connection to router/port x,
no transmission


Active wired connection to router/port x, transmission OK

Device marking conventions of ULTIAIR family. ULTIAIR is a series of professional Access Points, designed for efficient long-term outdoor operation. ULTIAIR devices are characterized by short delays and high throughput. They are recommended for creating efficient wireless IP CCTV and ISP networks. They can be managed via WinBox utility or telnet. They operate in unlicensed 5GHz band - no special permissions are needed. The devices can operate as client or base stations. Below we explain device marking conventions of ULTIAIR family.
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 419KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 423KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 423KN
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 417SB
The information coded in model numbers of ULTIAIR devices - example:
Mikrotik license levelAntenna gainAntenna directivityIntended use
3, 417, 19, 23K, S, DC, N , B
 3  3rd level 17  17 dBi K  Directional C  Client
 4  4th level 19  19 dBi S  Sector N  Nstream
 23  23 dBi D  Omnidirectional  B  Base station
The difference consists in the number of supported protocols and modes of work. It is shown in the table above (License levels).Higher gain enables transmission over longer distance
The exact angles are available in specifications of every ULTIAIR device.

C  For P2P connections.
N  Very efficient transmission.
B  For base stations.

According to the table:
  • ULTIAIR 419KC N2300 and ULTIAIR 423KC N2301 - they differ in antenna gain;
  • ULTIAIR 319KC N2310 and ULTIAIR 323KC N2311 - they differ in antenna gain;
  • ULTIAIR 319KC N2310 and ULTIAIR 419KC N2300 - the difference consists in license level;
  • ULTIAIR 323KC N2311 and ULTIAIR 423KC N2301 - the difference consists in license level.
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