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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 12/2009 (March 23, 2009)
ANPR - recognition of license plates. The latest development of CCTV systems is automatic interpretation of images. One of the rapidly growing areas of image analysis is automatic identification of license plates - Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR). The leader in this field, similarly to typical video surveillance systems, is the United Kingdom. In the USA, similar systems are more commonly referred to as LPR (License Plate Reader or License Plate Recognition) or ALPR (Automatic License Plate Recognition).
The British system consists of thousands of cameras and records about 50 million number plates a day. It allows to identify uninsured vehicles, duplicated plates, as well as to track the movement of criminals and suspects. The data items on the time and location of the vehicles are stored in databases and archived for five years.

Operation method:
The recognition algorithm first searches for the number plates and isolates them from the rest of the images. Then, the shape and size of the plates is standardized, as well as the system adjusts brightness and contrast of the samples. The next step is identification of individual characters by means of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). At the end, the system monitors compliance with the rules applying in the country.

A major challenge for ANPR cameras is the speed of the vehicles. Correct recognition of their license plate numbers requires readable characters, which is possible with short exposure times (e.g. 1/500 s at 60 km/h) and high light conditions. Therefore, the cameras are equipped with high power IR illuminators. The installations on motorways provide satisfactory results even for speeds of 240 km/h.
The influence of exposure time on the readability of the license number
A model example of efficient application is the charging system for movement of vehicles in central London. It consists of 1500 camera points and additional mobile sets. The system is used to identify vehicles entering and leaving the area. The data is compared with the entry fees. Lack of payment within the necessary time will result in automatic issue of a fine. The usefulness of the system is confirmed by its 98% effectiveness.

An interesting document prepared by the British Police is ANPR Strategy.
ANPR is an example of advanced CCTV applications
Formally, installation of an antenna requires a license, but... The photo below comes from the country inhabited since the second millennium BC by nomadic tribes of Berbers, also known as Moors. Since the twelfth century BC its coasts were settled by the Phoenicians, and from the 3rd century BC they belonged to the Carthaginian Empire. In 43 AD the Romans conquered the country and incorporated the territories into the Roman Empire.
The birth of the modern country in the seventh century was connected with the influence of Arabs, who brought their customs, culture, and Islam, to which most of the Berbers converted. Berber dynasties formed governments and reigned over the country that, after the 11th century, ruled most of Northwest Africa, as well as large sections of Islamic Iberia and Andalusia (the territories of present day Spain and Portugal).
Installing a satellite dish in this country one requires a formal permission
of the authorities, but probably it is difficult to enforce the precept
in such a cluster of dishes...
More on this country - at the end of this issue.
Use of PVR receiver and RF modulator in antenna installation. Twin tuner PVR receivers require two independent satellite signals. One of the channels received can be made available on other TVs in the house, by means of distribution of RF signal. The signal from the modulator (connected to the AV output of the receiver) is combined with the terrestrial TV signals via 2-way TV/FM splitter R60102.
The installation should employ the R694140 and R694100 outlets. Optional Wireless Remote Control Extension R94116 will allow to control the twin receiver remotely from another room.
Universal QUATRO LNB: Golden Interstar 0.2dBOffset Satellite Dish: 90cm, galv. paint. A-ETV-Sat Antenna Support WG-5 painted 30cmDouble Mount (for 2 LNBs)2-Way TV/FM Splitter R-2 SignalTV Modulator: Terra MT-21P (G,K: ch.21-69, with AC/DC adapter)9-input Multiswitch: TERRA MS-952Subscriber Terminal Outlet:Signal RTV-SAT-R (return path)Broadband RF Amplifier: Alcad CA-215TV/SAT Wall Plate: Signal R-TV-SAT (terminal)TV/SAT Wall Plate: Signal R-TV-SAT (terminal)
Distribution of additional TV channel from twin PVR within small multiswitch system
ULTIMAX (HIKVISION) DVRs in Burger King chain. In Glasgow, Scotland, the franchisees of one of the biggest fast-food chains in the world - Burger King (with 11,300 restaurants in 69 countries) equipped their restaurants with ULTIMAX DVRs of the 500 series (ULTIMAX-516 M75160, ULTIMAX-508 M75080, ULTIMAX-504 M75040).
The main reason for installing the monitoring system was to ensure a high level of security in the restaurants. This decision was also dictated by a concern to maintain the highest quality customer service, especially important when working with food.
A priority for the owners of the Burger King restaurants was network preview of each restaurant in real time and fast access to the archive. These recorders have been carefully selected because they belong to the small group in the market which uses the latest, highly efficient H.264 video compression. In addition, they allow to define second stream (with lower image parameters) tailored to the capacity of the links. Dual Stream option optimizes the use of bandwidth without loss of high quality of the recordings for which the main stream is used.
The choice was also dictated by the highest requirements for the stability and reliability of the system, operating 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Burger King restaurants in Glasgow have introduced CCTV system based on ULTIMAX DVRs
CCTV transmission via the Internet - part 2/3. Last week we described the case of a simple image transmission over the Internet to several users. Most IP devices can connect up to about ten clients.
If the investor wants to provide the video to a greater number of people, the situation becomes more complicated. The biggest problem is the bandwidth of the link, which is needed for the presentation of the image to multiple users. The required throughput is the product of the number of users and transmission requirements of the camera.
As a rule, the upload capacity of the network on the site is not suitable for that purpose. It requires to run an intermediary server that has access to a link of sufficient bandwidth. For this purpose there should be installed on the server (Media Server) appropriate streaming program, such as free VLC or other, commercial software. Then, the IP CCTV device sends only one stream to the Media Server (according to the rules described in the previous issue). The software will make it possible to convert the original stream to any other compression method and any encapsulation (e.g. to MPEG-4, wmv, mov, etc.). A universal format will enable the multiple users to watch the stream in good quality.
ULTICAM online camera - Wawel in Krakow
An example of using streaming format conversion
2.0 Mpx ULTICAM camera - adaptation to night vision. A very important feature of megapixel cameras is the way they cope with poor lighting conditions. This is due to the fact that image sensors made in CMOS technology are in general much less sensitive than their CCD counterparts.
However, it is not true that such cameras cannot be applied in the dark. The ULTICAM K1441 camera has two mechanisms for operating at night: slowing down the shutter speed and automatic gain control. Longer exposure time increases the amount of the light and brightens the image, but limits the number of frames per second, while higher sensitivity of the sensor also increases noise level.
Therefore, it is important to use these features appropriately and find the optimum setting for the monitored area. Here is the result of the use of the above mechanisms:
ULTICAM K1441:
AUTO GAIN: OFF
SHUTTER: OFF
ULTICAM K1441:
AUTO GAIN: HIGH
SHUTTER: AUTO*5
How to connect TP-LINK card to secured wireless network. Security of data transmission is especially important in WLANs. Encryption mechanisms also eliminate the risk of unauthorized use of the network for Internet access.
To connect an authorized user to secure network, the wireless adapter/card has to be properly configured. In the case of TP-LINK devices the user should enter the configuration menu, just selecting the icon of the card on the system tray, and choose "Profile Management".
In order to enter advanced configuration options, choose Profile Management and click on "Modify ..." (the currently active profile).
"Profile Management" window
To get access to the secured network, click on the Security tab and select the protocol, which is used by the network, and then click on "Configure".
Security settings
The box that appears allows to enter the password (passphrase), appropriate for the selected protocol. It is shown for WPA/WPA2 protocol (currently regarded as the safest):
Password dialog box (for WPA/WPA2 protocol)
Click "OK" to confirm the password - if entered correctly it will establish the connection.
Growing family of ULTIAIR devices. We have recently introduced new models of ULTIAIR wireless equipment:
  • ULTIAIR 319KC 166AG N2312
  • ULTIAIR 319KC 166AG N2313
These devices are ideal for connecting end users to the Internet.
ULTIAIR N2312 and N2313 work in unlicensed 5 GHz band. Thanks to application of sensitive MiniPCI card - SparkLan Atheros 5414 166AG - they are perfect for using as client stations. For base stations we recommend N2300, N2301, N2330.
Notice! ULTIAIR N2310 and N2311 with SparkLan WMIA-123AG 5 GHz have been designed for efficient point-to-point links used in IP CCTV systems.
All ULTIAIR devices include a complete set of accessories needed for installation on a mast or wall. They are powered from the included power supply, with PoE adapter.
Main features:
  • Flexible configuration;
  • Possibility of creating advanced network systems;
  • Efficient data transmission;
  • Weather-resistant housing (IP 66);
  • Quick configuration of Bridge mode;
  • Easy installation.
An important feature of ULTIAIR devices is possibility of application in tough industrial environments. High throughput enables effective multimedia transmission.
List of ULTIAIR devices:
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 419KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 423KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 423KN
ULTIAIR 419KC N2300
ULTIAIR 423KC N2301
ULTIAIR 423KN N2320
Antenna: Technologic 19dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 4
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 123ag
Band: 5GHz
Antenna: Technologic 23dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 4
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 123ag
Band: 5GHz
Antenna: Dual Technologic 23dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 4
Wireless chipset: 2x Sparklan 123ag
Band: 5GHz
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KC
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 417SB
ULTIAIR 319KC N2310
ULTIAIR 323KC N2311
ULTIAIR 417SB N2330
Antenna: Technologic 19dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 3
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 123ag
Band: 5GHz
Antenna: Technologic 23dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 3
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 123ag
Band: 5GHz
Antenna: Technologic 17dB
Kind of antenna: sector
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 4
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 123ag
Band: 5GHz
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KC 166AG
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KC 166AG
2.4GHz HotSpot: ULTIAIR 415SB
ULTIAIR 319KC 166AG
ULTIAIR 323KC 166AG
ULTIAIR 415SB HotSpot 2.4GHz
Antenna: Technologic 19dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 3
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 166ag
Band: 5GHz
Antenna: Technologic 23dB
Kind of antenna: directional
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 3
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 166ag
Band: 5GHz
Antenna: Technologic 15dB
Kind of antenna: sector
Main board: RouterBoard 411
System: Mikrotik level 4
Wireless chipset: Sparklan 123ag
Band: 2.4GHz

Morocco. 34-million country, which in 2008 reached 5.3% GDP growth, recording unemployment at 2.3% level. In 2007, there were about 3 million land lines and more than 20 million cellular phones there, which means catching up on the limited infrastructure through the use of wireless technology.
Morocco is on the route of the famous fiber cable (SEA-ME-WE-3) linking Europe (Germany) and Asia (with ends in Japan and Australia). The cable is known that it is damaged by ship anchors in the Egyptian port of Alexandria at least once a year, which is the cause of massive global telecommunications problems.
Part of the walls surrounding Chellah on the outskirts of Rabat, the capital city of Morocco
The interior of the mausoleum of Mouley Ismail in Meknes
A backyard in the medina of Fes
We have written about:

Recording of road traffic with the use of ULTIAIR devices and IP CCTV cameras from ACTi. Failing to yield right of way and going over a red light at the crossroads are important reasons of collisions and accidents in large cities. It is often difficult to establish the fault of the driver...
- archive DWR of Feb. 23, 2009

How to combine two SAT signals into one cable - TWINSENDER. A common mistake made when wiring houses and apartments (or installing a satellite TV system) is putting only as many cables as needed at the moment. Most of satellite dishes have been installed with single LNBs, each connected with the sat receiver via single coaxial cable. However, modern sat receivers with recording functions (PVRs) have two tuners that require two independent signals....
- archive DWR of Jan. 12, 2009

How to set OSD cameras? Application of DSP (Digital Signal Processor) allows to enhance the array of cameras adjustments, without limitations of the previous mechanical switches and potentiometers..
- archive DWR of Feb.18, 2008

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