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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 43/2009 (Dec. 21, 2009)
May the joy and peace of Christmas
be with you now and throughout the New Year.
We wish you happiness,
success and satisfaction!
Editorial staff
DIPOL's Christmas Tree
DIPOL's Cherub

The next issue will be published on January 4, 2010.
The world focuses on optical networks, Europe develops strategies. In 2007, the number of FTTH/FTTB (Fiber To The Home/Building) users was about 16 million. In 2008, the number increased by over 30%, this year it is expected to grow by 40%! The FTTH/FTTB services have most subscribers in Asia. In 2008 the percentage was 78%. The European market is only 5% of the global market.
Analysts estimate that by the end of 2011 year approximately 16 million homes in Europe will be connected to FTTH/FTTB - it will be about 8% of all dwellings. This "ambitious" plan contrasts with the results which were achieved in the end of 2008 in Asian countries: South Korea - 45%, Japan - 25%, Taiwan - 12%.
FTTH saturation at a level higher than 1% was also in Sweden, Norway, Slovenia, the USA, Iceland, Denmark, Andorra, Netherlands, Finland, Singapore, Lithuania, China, Italy, Estonia, Russia, Latvia. It is interesting that the list does not include Germany, France, and Great Britain. A bold policy aimed at quick development of optical networks is conducted by Slovakia which this year entered the group of 20 countries with the most developed infrastructure of this kind.
The penetration of FTTH/FTTB on the U.S. market is about 5%, and the most popular FTTH service is FIOS (Fiber Optic Service). Verizon, the operator of FIOS, has about 3 million subscribers.
In China, the FTTH/FTTB share is 1.9%. However, the pace of growth is so fast (about 80% per year) that the report issued by FTTH Councils of Asia-Pacific announces Chinese leadership in the number of installed FTTH/FTTB within two years.

(Based on reports of Dell'Oro Group and Ranking of European Fibre-To-The-Home (FTTH) September 2009)
Architecture of FTTx systems
(source: Wikipedia)
In Asia and the U.S., the development of telecommunications infrastructure is one of the most important elements in overcoming the crisis. In Europe, the need for progress in modern technologies was alreadyrecognized in 2000, when the Lisbon Strategy emerged. The aim of the plan was to make the EU "the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion, and respect for the environment by 2010". The implied meaning was to overtake the USA. Unfortunately, Europeans have not managed to overtake Americans, but in many fields have been overtaken by Asian countries...
It stimulates Europeans to step up their efforts for the new strategy "EU 2020", which will replace the existing 2010 EU agenda for growth and jobs (Lisbon Strategy). The basic premise of this project is "more intelligent and ecological, knowledge-based market economy".
The European Commission launched a consultation on the new strategy, waiting for comments and suggestions sent by e-mails to EU2020@ec.europa.eu till January 15, 2010. On this basis, the EC will develop detailed proposals and present them for approval to the heads of states and governments during the summit in March 2010.

Admittedly, the optical infrastructure will not grow from the wide-ranging consultations, but the new strategy will be at least a bright vision of the future.

What do you think about it, Kenzo Tange? Wireless communication systems require the installation of antennas. Tall buildings are the most suitable places for this purpose, their managers usually decide to install such equipment on the roofs. This way the antennas do not interfere with the architecture of the buildings, are less visible.
It is rare to place antennas on the facades, especially in the case of prestigious buildings designed by famous architects.
The building shown in the pictures below is one of the exceptions. What is this building? Where is it? Why Kenzo Tange should issue an opinion on this subject? - You can check out the answers at the end of this page.
What is this building? Where is it? Why Kenzo Tange should issue an opinion on this subject?
Advantages of fiber optic cables. Growing interest in FTTx systems is associated with lowering costs of fiber optic cables and the rest of the equipment, whereas the tendency in copper prices is just opposite. In addition, optical fibers have much better transmission performance than the traditional signal cables made of copper. Light signals can be transmitted over long distances due to very low attenuation of the fibers.

The comparison of the characteristics of fiber optic and copper cables is shown in the following table:
Parameter
Coaxial cable
Fiber optic cable
attenuationhigh, growing with frequencyvery low
impedance
changeable with frequency, inhomogeneous in long cables
does not apply
resistance to effects caused by different electrical potentials of the transmitter and receiverlowcomplete isolation
resistance to EMI/RFIlowcomplete
transmission rangefor broadband data/RF transmission - up to several hundred meters (without regenerators/amplifiers)
even over hundred kilometers (without regenerators/amplifiers)
transmission quality
satisfactory under many conditions
high
ease of connectivity
greatmoderate - requires skills and special equipment, relatively expensive
mechanical strengthhighlow but acceptable
costlow in the case of links up to 800 meterslow in the case of links over 800 meters
As the table shows, the use of fiber optics can bring enormous benefits. The only problem might be with fusion splicing of the fibers, however today's fusion splicers do not require to use microscopes for manual centering of cores, but they employ cameras and monitors, and the adjustment is performed automatically.
Typical and maximum attenuation of optical fibers as well as minimum bandwidth-distance product of multimode optical fibers is shown in the following table:
Parameter
WavelengthMultimode optical fiberSingle-mode optical fiber
50 um62.5 um
typical attenuation
850 nm2.5 dB/km3.0 dB/km-
1310 nm0.7 dB/km0.8 dB/km0.33 dB/km
1550 nm--0.20 dB/km
maximum attenuation
850 nm3.0 dB/km3.5 dB/km-
1310 nm1.0 dB/km1.0 dB/km0.45 dB/km
1550 nm--0.30 dB/km
minimum bandwidth-distance product
850 nm450 MHz*km300 MHz*kmnot limited
1310 nm800 MHz*km600 MHz*km
1550 nm--
The minimum bandwidth-distance product - MHz*km - expresses the trade off between the bandwidth of the signal and the distance over which it can be carried in a multimode optical fiber. It is caused by the effect of dispersion, not taking place in the case of single-mode fibers.
The cheapest combo receiver on the market - Opticum HD TS 9600. DIPOL company has expanded the range of DVB receivers by the new two-tuner combo receiver Opticum TS 9600 A99438. It allows to receive both digital satellite broadcasts (DVB-S/S2) and terrestrial DVB-T signals.
The receiver has two smart card readers in Conax system and two Common Interface slots for CAM modules.
DVB-S2/DVB-T Receiver: Opticum HD TS 9600
Opticum HD TS 9600
A99438
PVR (Personal Video Recorder) function enables the user to record audio-video content (also HD) on external data storage devices, such as flash or hard drives. Time Shift function, also using the external memory, allows to watch a program a little later (up to one hour) and skip commercials. Other interesting functions of the receiver include software support for Unicable technology (one-cable distribution of satellite signals to up to four receivers), and possibility of using an external IR sensor.
How to choose the lens? Choosing the correct type of lens is just as important as choosing the camera. Poor quality of the lens can significantly reduce the overall quality of the camera point. When choosing a lens, first of all one should pay attention to the viewing angle (or the focal length) and the kind of iris and focal length control.

Viewing angle:
  • narrow-angle (telephoto) - focal length greater than the diagonal of the image sensor, e.g. M2314;
  • standard - focal length similar to the diagonal of the image sensor, e.g. M2004;
  • wide-angle - focal length shorter than the diagonal of the image sensor, e.g. M2002.
Kind of iris:
  • manual iris - used in environments with practically constant light, usually inside buildings. The adjustment is made during the installation, with a ring or lever. Example: M2302;
  • automatic iris (AI) - the lens maintains a constant amount of light falling on the sensor, regardless of lighting conditions. The electronic shutter of the camera is set to 1/50 s, and the lens opens or closes in accordance with changing conditions. The camera with auto iris lens is able to work properly in the case of very large changes in lighting. Examples: M2312, M21401.
CCTV Lens: Tokina 2.7-12.5 mm F1.4 DC A/I
CCTV Lens: JENSEN 3 - 8 mm DC F 1.0
Tokina 2.7-12.5 mm M2312
JENSEN 3.0-8 mm M21401
Lenses with Auto Iris
Kind of focal length control
  • no control - one of typical focal lengths (e.g. 2.5 mm, 3.6 mm, ...). Example: M2004;
  • manual control (varifocal, zoom) - recommended when the size of the object/monitored area can change or one needs the freedom of choice of focal length, e.g. M2311;
  • remote control (motor zoom) - usually used with PTZ cameras.
New ACTi cameras - small size, great strength. New IP cameras from ACTi combine the highest quality and greatest strength with the smallest size.
The VGA camera ACM-3601 K1316 and 1.3 Mpix camera ACM-3701 K1317 have all the possibilities already known from the earlier models, so their configuration is identical. They support MPEG4 and MJPEG compression, up to 30 fps (the VGA model) and 8 fps (the 1.3 Mpix model at full resolution). They are powered using PoE technology, via UTP/FTP cable which transmits both the data and supplying voltage of 48 VDC.
Vandal Proof IP VGA Camera: ACTi ACM-3601
Vandal Proof IP 1.3 Mpx Camera: ACTi ACM-3701
Vandal Proof IP VGA Camera
ACTi ACM-3601
K1316
Vandal Proof IP 1.3 Mpx Camera
ACTi ACM-3701
K1317
The main distinguishing features of the cameras are: robust, vandal-proof housing with IP66 class, operating temperature range from -20oC to 50oC, resistance to shock and vibration. They ensure proper operation under toughest conditions. And all this in a housing with a diameter of 10 cm!
Environmental testing of the new ACTi camera
A problem with coverage? Let's use GSM repeater. The requirement of the the investor, DSS Polska, was to strengthen the signal of one of the GSM operators in the office in Krakow city center. The task was undertaken by TELEAUDYT company installing and modernizing telecommunications infrastructure as well as installing IP video surveillance systems.
The installation required to carry out measurements of signal levels due to the close location of the transmitter of another cellular network. After the measurements, the company installed suitable external antenna. Due to the required angle of wave propagation and aesthetic demands, the chosen antenna was TRANS-DATA GSM/DCS/UMTS KPV7.5/10 A741020.
View of the installed outdoor antenna
TRANS-DATA KPV7.5/10 A741020
The room to be covered by the amplified signal has the area of 350 m2 and is located in the basement of the building. Due to this area, the TELEAUDYT company chose the repeater SIGNAL GSM-300 A6760. Because of the layout of the office room (open-space area without partitions), it was enough to use only one indoor antenna (supplied with the Signal GSM-300 A6760).
GSM Repeater Signal GSM-300
Signal GSM-300
A6760
GSM/DSC/UMTS Antenna: TRANS-DATA KPV7.5/10GSM Repeater Signal GSM-300
Basic diagram of the installation with the GSM repeater A6760
The measurements performed in the room after completion of the installation showed 100% coverage with the signal of the operator. The investor is completely satisfied with the system performance.
The list of installation components:
  • GSM Repeater Signal GSM-300 A6760,
  • GSM/DSC/UMTS Antenna: TRANS-DATA KPV7.5/10,
  • N-male to N-male Cable (10m RF-5).
We encourage you to describe your implementations.
The TELEAUDYT company receives "Chameleon mug".

How to get "Chameleon mug"?

.................................................................
Correction:
In the DIPOL Weekly Review No. 42 we published incorrect wiring diagram of the "crossover" cable. The current version of the page is correct.

.................................................................
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building. City hall of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. The building with the height of 243 m had been the highest one in Tokyo from 1991 to 2006, the year when it was "outgrown" by Tokyo Midtown (248 m).
The building was designed by renowned Japanese architect Kenzo Tange. Some people associate the architecture of Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building with a Gothic cathedral, others think it is a giant representation of a microprocessor.
Unfortunately, we will not be able to get the opinion of Kenzo Tange on the antennas on the facade - he died in 2005.
A panorama of Tokyo from Metropolitan Government Building,
among others the view of the Imperial Gardens
(the green, irregular area in the picture on the left)
We have written about:

Recording features of NUUO NVR mini. Network Video Recorders NUUO K4104 and K4108 enable full management of IP CCTV systems.
Despite small size, they allow full-speed (25 fps) monitoring and recording of cameras with standard resolution (D1: 720 x 576), as well as synchronized recording of sound channels. The NVRs also allow to record video streams from megapixel cameras (up to 5 Mpix). They can operate in three modes: continuous recording, schedule recording, no recording...


ULTIMAX - DVRs for demanding customers - maps in remote client software. Distributed video surveillance systems and systems with a large number of cameras should enable the operator to easily locate the camera capturing the image, or the sequence of cameras that follow a moving object. Camera names or numbers are in such systems inadequate for effective operation...

Megapixel lenses. One-megapixel camera (1 Mpx - 1,000,000 pixels) provides over twice the pixels than standard PAL camera (704 x 576 = 405 504 pixels). 5 Mpx cameras offer resolution of 2592 x 1944 pixels (12.5 times more pixels than PAL and 2.5 times more than HDTV images).
So high resolutions of the sensors require using adequate lenses. Low-quality lenses would spoil the resultant images...

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