DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN

No. 17/2009 (April 27, 2009)
New trends in security industry - IFSEC 2009. The world's largest global annual security trade fair returns to the NEC Birmingham from May 11 - 14, 2009. What will be presented by the exhibitors? What new trends will emerge at this year's IFSEC?
The organizers of IFSEC, UBM Live, together with the British Security Industry Association (BSIA), have announced the finalists for the Security Industry Awards 2009. The nominations are rewards in themselves - for inventiveness, functionality, and quality of the products.
The six finalist in CCTV are:
  • DV-IP Server - Embedded NetVu Console - Dedicated Micros - hybrid recording system (JPEG and MPEG) enabling analytic solutions;
  • HD-Multi-Megapixel Day &Night Lens - Kowa Europe GmbH - a new generation of HD lenses for IP- Day &Night cameras with resolution over 3 Mpx;
  • Q22 Camera - MOBOTIX - Hemispheric 3 Mpx / 4 fps 360 Degree IP Camera with 1/2'' CMOS sensor (progressive scan). Sensitivity: 1 lx (t=1/60 s), 0.05 lx (t=1/1 s); Compressions: MxPEG (MOBOTIX - proprietary), M-JPEG, JPG, H.263 (Video-VoIP-Telephony); built-in microphone, IR illuminator, SD card slot;
  • VCC-HD4000P Camera - SANYO Europe - 4 Mpx, 10x AF Zoom, JPEG/H.264 Dual Codec , HD recording onto SD Memory Card , Day/Night function;
  • MVG - The Ultimate Mobile CCTV System - SerVision - monitoring system for mobile applications such as buses, trains, police vans, delivery trucks, ambulances etc. MVG uses cellular and wireless technologies to stream high-quality live or recorded video from the vehicles to remote client devices. GPS support enables remote users to locate and track the vehicles. Full duplex audio transmission allows drivers to contact with dispatchers and other personnel;
  • ALBERT Video Agent - Videotec SPA - ALBERT can detect: moving objects (virtual barrier), protected area intrusion, the appearance and disappearance of objects etc. While patrolling, the units can cooperate for optimal covering of the areas. Optional hard disk enables local high-quality recording. The system automatically adapts parameters to moving trees, rain, see waves, light changes and shadows. It supports PTZ cameras.
There are many interesting exhibition announcements of industry leaders:
  • Vivotek will show new megapixel cameras.
  • Cisco will present network products dedicated for IP video surveillance.
  • D-Tec will exhibit smoke detection system based on CCTV equipment.
  • Panasonic will display network video recorders (NVR).
  • Sony will present hybrid CCTV systems (analog + IP).
  • Hikvision will unveil new hybrid DVR.
  • Axis will demonstrate products based on H.264 compression.
  • Western Digital will boast of new HDDs employing Green Power technology.
  • JVC will present new megapixel cameras with H.264 compression.
IFSEC 2008 in Birmingham - a new revolution
The popularity of CCTV monitoring requires increasingly sophisticated monitoring centers. Due to the vast amount of data, the analysis of the video performed by surveillance staff becomes very difficult.
It is time to support the work by intelligent software.
"Engagingly about Antennas" - VIII DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2009. Works can be submitted from June 1st, 2009, but the preparation may begin well before the start date.
Antennas constitute a part of our everyday landscape. Many of us can remember all of these past "forests" of traditional TV antennas that disappear from our lives being replaced by "dishes" of satellite antennas, and "tubes" or "columns" of communications devices. Some of them irritate our sense of beauty and ruin the looks of even the most architecturally-advanced buildings, but others may have just an opposite effect, creating a sort of unity and harmony with their surroundings.
The media patronage over the competition has been taken by quickly developing dCamera photo portal. The portal is focused both on photo hobbyists and professionals.

Rules of participation
Engagingly about Antennas - II DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2003
Engagingly bout Antennas - III DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2004
Engagingly About Antennas - IV Summer 2005 Dipol Competition
ATX-91, Mateusz
Orion, J. Pawlega
Antennas - Kujora,
I. Joskowski
Laureates of 2003, 2004, and 2005 editions

Engagingly about Antennas - V Summer 2006 DIPOL Competition
Engagingly about Antennas - V Summer 2006 DIPOL Competition
Engagingly about Antennas - V Summer 2006 DIPOL Competition
"Mars invades" - E. Tomczak - the main prize winner in 2006

Engagingly about Antennas - VI Summer 2007 DIPOL Competition
"Meltdown" by A. Sienkiewicz - I place in 2007
Engagingly about Antennas - VII DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2008
Engagingly about Antennas - VII DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2008
Engagingly about Antennas - VII DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2008
"In a distorting mirror" - D. Maczynski - the winner of 2008 edition
Star topology cabling system - the condition of flexible antenna installation. Modern antenna installations should be not only functional and reliable but also flexible. Once designed and constructed, the backbone of any installation should be universal and capable of connecting to it more and more modern equipment without any interference into its structure for many years.
Such installation should allow for connection of terrestrial TV signals, satellite television, cable TV and, if necessary, other video signals, such as video from surveillance cameras. These requirements can only be fulfilled by star systems, i.e. those where the cables are coming from one central point.
Another demand is to ensure high reliability of the system - it is possible using highest quality cables and equipment with consistent and stable parameters. The requirements are met by TRISET-113 cable.
In the diagram below we present the extension of terrestrial antenna installation to receive satellite signals in two outlets. For this purpose we use TWIN LNB. The signals are combined with terrestrial TV with DC-009 satellite combiner. The R90461 amplifier, R60102, R60103 splitters and R85300 combiner can be put into the TPR-5 housing.
Star topology enables modernization of such installations to multiswitch systems which allow the users to connect satellite receivers to all outlets (the outlets have to be exchanged for R694100).
Universal TWIN LNB Inverto 0.3 dBElegant Satellite Dish: 80cm, offset, A-E, galvanized &paintedTV-Sat Antenna Support WG-5 painted 30cmTV/SAT Wall Plate: Signal R-TV-SAT (terminal)Broadband RF Amplifier: Alcad CA-2152-Way TV/FM Splitter R-2 SignalTV/Sat Combiner (Diplexer) DC-009 TerraTV/SAT Wall Plate: Signal R-TV-SAT (terminal)3-Way TV/FM Splitter R-3 SignalSubscriber Terminal Outlet (4 dB) BM-100 - ALCADWall Plate EM-200 (for BM outlets) ALCADSubscriber Terminal Outlet (4 dB) BM-100 - ALCADWall Plate EM-200 (for BM outlets) ALCADSubscriber Terminal Outlet (4 dB) BM-100 - ALCADWall Plate EM-200 (for BM outlets) ALCADTV/Sat Combiner (Diplexer) DC-009 Terra
Connection of two sat receivers to TV antenna system
Residential monitoring - part 1. One of the ways of monitoring multi-family buildings and housing developments equipped with cable TV is installation of IP cameras and use of the cable distribution network for providing access to the images for the residents. Additionally, using transmission capability of the cable operator, it is usually possible to transmit video stream from sensitive locations to a city monitoring center, police etc. In many cities, this solution can significantly reduce the installation costs of CCTV monitoring, further ensuring the maintenance of the CCTV equipment by professional staff of cable television.
K1215 cameras from ACTi are equipped both with digital and analog outputs that enable to use analog video for driving RF modulators. The modulated signals can be easily distributed in cable TV network and received by the subscribers on their televisions. Any interested resident can watch the chosen location.
The cameras in these monitoring systems are usually situated at entrances to staircases, at parking spaces and playgrounds for children.
IP Speed Dome Day/Night Camera: ACTi CAM-6621 (MPEG-4)
Network video server/recorder PiXORD P4504 K2132 - four RTSP streams. The Pixord P4504 (K2132) video server converts analog video/audio signals from four cameras into IP packets that are transmitted as data stream through any computer network and can be locally recorded on hard drive (video and/or sound).
The main applications include professional video surveillance systems (in businesses, offices, stores, shopping molls, industrial plants, banks, government buildings, housing developments, houses etc.) based on IP networks.
P4504 can stream digital video compressed by MPEG-4 (SP, ASP) or MJPEG algorithms, in Full D1 resolution (720x576 PAL, 720x480 NTSC), at 25fps PAL / 30fps NTSC (four channels; 6.25fps PAL, 7.5fps NTSC for each channel). Image resolution can be reduced to Half D1 or CIF format. At a moment sound can be transmitted from one of the four channels. The parameters are the same in the case of remote playback of archives from hard drive of the video server. In each video format the user can set compression level which influences image quality and bandwidth requirements. Additionally, in MPEG-4 format it is possible to choose CBR or VBR option and change advanced Group of Picture (GOP) settings. The MPEG-4 streaming uses RTSP protocol.
The device is an ideal solution for presentations on a website of four images with a single video server. Thanks to the RTSP protocol, the access to the images is available through any web browser without installing any plugins, on any platform (Windows, Linux).
DIPOL can recommend this unique 4-channel PiXORD P4504 K2132 video server/recorder with four RTSP streams for anyone posting CCTV images on the Internet.

More on the video server/recorder
Video Server: Pixord P4504CCTV Lens: JENSEN 3.5 - 8 mm M F1.4Color CCTV Camera: U-cam 110 (without lens)
PiXORD P4504 can send four streams using RTSP. This protocol is ideal
for displaying CCTV images on the Internet.
Live monitoring in NUUO system. A new tendency in IP CCTV is application of network video recorders (NVRs). They allow to build distributed systems, both in the case of camera deployment and location of management/recording posts. The devices should support megapixel cameras (up to 5 Mpx) and ensure high reliability (not possible in the case op PC-based solutions susceptible to computer viruses and OS errors). A good example of such equipment is the NVR mini series of NUUO (K4104, K4108). NUUO is one of the leaders in software solutions for PC platform, manufacturing PCI video cards and network video recorders.
The connections between the cameras and NVR, as well as between the NVR and client stations, are provided by a computer network. Therefore, in order to monitor the images from the cameras one needs a PC computer equipped with Windows operating system.
Access to the live image from any camera can be obtained in two ways:
  • through Internet Explorer (it also allows to configure the system and get acces to the archive),
  • with Remote Live Viewer software allowing simultaneous access to many NUUO devices.
Both solutions have their strong points: the first one enables monitoring from any location without installing any software; the second allows to build professional surveillance post - it makes the management of multi-server system much easier.
NUUO NVRs are used in many distributed systems that have to provide highest quality video and ensure high stability without the need for manual operation.
Network Video Recorder: NUUO NV-4080
NUUO K4108
Live monitoring on a website
WLAN link may not operate despite mutual visibility of antennas. Correct operation of wireless link and its transmission range depends on many factors which can be divided into:
- well-defined factors:
  • output power (it has been decided by the manufacturer),
  • cable attenuation (depends on the feeding cable and its length),
  • gain of antennas (given by the manufacturer),
  • sensitivity of receivers (given by the manufacturer).
- estimated factors:
  • attenuation between antennas (can be estimated basing on FSL model),
  • interferences from other devices (can't be predicted - some additional margin of safety needs to be provided to compensate these interferences).
In the case of WLAN, the basic requirement is to provide adequate visibility between radio nodes, because it has a significant impact on transmission capability of the wireless link.
Fresnel zone is one of the most important concepts connected with propagation of electromagnetic waves which is indispensable to assess parameters of wireless link. It is the area actively participating in transmission of radio signal energy. Shape of this area is an ellipse in longitudinal section, and circle in cross-section. Radius of this circle is a function of the ratio of distances between antennas - it has the maximum value in the middle of the link. The importance of first Fresnel zone comes from the fact that almost all energy of the signal is conveyed via this space.
  • dkm = d1km+d2km - distance between masts in km
  • d1km - distance from the first antenna in km
  • d2km - distance from the second antenna in km
Wrongly made installation.
The obstacles in the first Fresnel zone do not allow correct operation of the link.
Installation made correctly.
Visibility of antennas and no barriers in the first Fresnel zone allow proper operation of the link.
In practice, no obstacles in the central 60% of the I Fresnel zone guarantee quite minimal power loss.

Radio link length [km]

60% of the I Fresnel zone radius [m]











































Relationship of the I Fresnel zone radius in function of radio link length
for systems working on 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency
Wireless data transmission with ULTIAIR devices. ULTIAIR is a series of professional Access Points designed for efficient long-term outdoor operation. Outdoor housing of IP 66 class integrating RouterBoard with the antenna guarantees full protection against adverse weather conditions and corrosive environments (industry). All ULTAIR devices include a complete set of accessories needed for easy and solid installation on a mast or wall.
ULTIAIR series has been designed for creating efficient wireless IP CCTV and ISP networks. The series is characterized by short delays and high throughput. The devices can be managed via WinBox utility or telnet. ULTIAIR series operates in unlicensed 5GHz band - no special permissions are needed. The devices can operate as client or base stations, as well as point-to-point nodes (bridge mode).
For the latter application of ULTIAIR devices there can be used the following pairs:
Possible pairs of ULTIAIR devices for creating point-to-point links.
The devices have different antennas (gain), wireless modules, license levels.
At least one of the devices in each pair has to have license level 4 - to enable operation as Access Point.

Information on license levels
Now there are available cheaper equivalents of N2310 and N2311: N2312 and N2313. They differ in wireless modules, i.e. N2312 and N2313 have been equipped with SparkLan 166ag suitable for end clients in ISP networks.
Possible couples have been listed below:
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KC 166AG
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 323KC
Possible pairs of ULTIAIR devices equipped with Sparklan radio modules for creating point-to-point links.
The couples are recommended for connecting end clients (users) in ISP networks.
Summing up: - high-throughput links for transmitting video streams require to use ULTIAIR N2300, N2301, N2310, N2311, N2320, N2330, whereas connections of end users to the Internet can be made with N2312 or N2313.
We have written about:

Antenna system measurements. Knowledge of signal parameters, among others: differences in levels of useful signals, signal levels in subscriber outlets, BER, level of noise and interferences - allows to prepare optimal design and verify actual results...
- archive DWR of Nov. 19, 2007

ULTIMAX - DVRs for demanding customers - maps in remote client software. Distributed video surveillance systems and systems with a large number of cameras should enable the operator to easily locate the camera capturing the image, or the sequence of cameras that follow a moving object...
- archive DWR of June 16, 2008

Lossless splitting of cable TV signal for multi-room TV/video installations. Most of antenna amplifiers cannot be used for this purpose, due to unspecified parameters in the special cable channels. The void is filled by the RF amplifier AI-223 R90452...
- archive DWR of Oct. 15, 2007

Index of published issues
Modular Headend TERRA MMH-3000