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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 26/2009 (Aug. 24, 2009)
Boom, crisis... boom - what is the future of telecommunications? In the second half of the nineties of the last century telecom companies experienced boom times. GSM mobile telephony was a true success story, the prospects of the industry were good, emerging Internet technologies promised recovery of telecommunications services, and the ease of raising capital allowed to make large investments.
On the wave of euphoria in 2000 in Europe, there were a lot of companies that tendered for UMTS licenses. Operators expecting further success were willing to pay huge amounts of money for the licenses, most in Germany - 45 billion dollars, and the UK - 34 billion dollars.
In a relatively short time it became clear that Internet technologies would not provide the expected income, on the contrary, IP network transmission and market liberalization resulted in rapid reduction in prices for calls. The amounts spent on UMTS licenses, invested in fiber backbone networks and in acquiring dot-com companies resulted in serious problems with balancing accounts yet at the end of 2000.
The year 2000 began bursting "Internet bubble" and starting dramatic reduction in prices of overvalued shares of companies of IT sector.
Lack of capital in telecoms, UMTS flop - of the technology that could not meet the requirements of multimedia transmission and consequently did not provide a breakthrough in telecommunications, dramatically low use of the network backbones - which was estimated in America and Europe at 35% - all this generated the crisis in telecommunications with major depression in 2002 .
Since then, the industry is painfully restoring its position, creates new technologies that begin to generate revenue and intensify traffic in the backbone networks.
However, the general crisis that began in late 2008 has also struck in telecommunications, but paradoxically it revives hopes for a new boom in this field. The most developed economies - the U.S. is the leader - think that telecommunications can be a flywheel for overcoming the crisis. For example, the American administration committed 20 billion US dollars for development of broadband Internet, other countries adopt similar initiatives as well.

Also technical requirements indicate the need for large investments. The increasing traffic associated with the transmission of multimedia results in an increased demand for capacity of backbone networks. USA - China cable (TPE - Trans Pacific Express) has been running since year-end 2008, Hibernia company has recently launched a new transatlantic cable.

New IPv6 protocol will cause a true revolution in this field. The daily Ipv4 Address Report shows that the projected IANA unallocated address pool exhaustion will take place in about 650 days. Until then, the network facilities have to be generally updated, which will cause high demand for infrastructure products, while at the same time opening the possibility of new services (e.g. multicast video transmission).

To sum up: the demand for bandwidth associated with the transmission of multimedia, the depletion of the IPv4 address pool, and investments of public funds by the governments into telecommunications - promise boom in this area, despite the crisis in the global economy.
CeBIT 2009 - a failed fair?
"End - to - End LTE" - Alcatel's offer presented on CeBIT announces
a new generation of mobile telephony, also known as 4G.
New investments in the telecommunications field can create new jobs.
Telecommunications in Norway is one of the most modern in the world. Because of the mountainous terrain and relatively small population, wireless technology is especially important there. Norwegians use about 2 million landline phones and as many as 5.2 million mobile phones.
In terms of Internet access Norway is the world leader with 86% of the population - for example the percentage in Germany is 67%. Taking into account broadband services, Norway occupies 10th place in the world, with the level of 27%. In Germany, access to broadband Internet have 21% citizens (source).
For December 2009 it is planned completion of the switchover from analog to digital TV. Currently digital terrestrial television in Norway uses DVB-T standard with H.264/ MPEG-4 AVC compression, however it will be finally changed to DVB-T2.
The largest and most well-known Norwegian telecommunications companies include Telenor - the operator offers its services in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, Russia, and Pakistan, and Tandberg - the company is known for videoconferencing systems and equipment in the field of digital television.

Norway has 4.7 million inhabitants. Its GDP per capita is 55,000 USD (for comparison: Czech Republic - 25,000 USD; Hungary - 19,500 USD; Poland - 17,500 USD).
The prosperity of the Norwegian economy is based mainly on energy, both fuels (third place in the world in gas export, seventh in crude oil) and renewable energy (hydro power).

(based on: The World Factbook 2009. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009)
Norway - in harmony with nature
Norway - in harmony with nature
LNBs are protected from heavy rainfall and snowfall - more
OPTICUM 9500 HD PVR 2CI 2CX E PLUS. OPTICUM 9500 A99435 is a cheap digital receiver for satellite TV channels broadcast in HD resolution.
It allows to receive FTA channels and programs encrypted in CONAX or other systems (after installing additional CA module connected to CI slot).
Due to fast USB 2.0 interface, the receiver allows to record programs onto external USB memory device. The device will also enable the user to play back both the recordings and other multimedia (films, MP3, jpg). The receiver supports not only FAT32 file system, but also ext2 (Linux). The user can examine the performance of the connected flash memory or hard drive.
Front panel is equipped with alphanumeric display and two LEDs showing operation status. The receiver has both digital and analog outputs.
The receiver has ready-to-use channel list, the user can additionally configure 32 favorites. Menu languages include English, Polish, French, German, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak.
Time setting can be done manually or automatically from the DVB stream. There is option to change the daylight saving time.

OPTICUM satellite receivers
DVB-S/DVB-S2 Receiver: OPTICUM 9500 HD PVR 2CI 2CX E Plus
DVB-S/DVB-S2 receiver OPTICUM - 9500
HD PVR 2CI 2CX E Plus - A99435
DVB-S Receiver: OPTICUM X11P
DVB-S receiver OPTICUM
X11P - A99421
DVB-S receiver OPTICUM 7300L PVR 2CX PLUS - A99423
DVB-S receiver OPTICUM 7300 PVR CI2CX PLUS VFD - A99424
Camera for suspension ceilings - CAM 500 + IR M11255. In offices, conference rooms, private homes - an important role in the selection of the camera, in addition to its performance, is the look of the device.
If aesthetics is important, the best solution is camera mounted in suspended ceiling - easy to install and practically invisible (thanks to its shape and color).
The new camera CAM 500 + IR is prepared for mounting in plaster boards e.g. on suspension ceilings. The camera has been equipped with high quality Sony Super HAD CCD sensor (420 TVL) and IR illuminator. The features allow to use the camera during the day and at night. The images obtained from the camera reflect the actual colors, allow to see small details, and the edges of objects are really sharp.
Color CCTV Camera: CAM - 500 + IR<br />(mounted in drywall)
Color CCTV Camera CAM 500 + IR
DVRs designed for cooperation - ULTIMAX 104 and 204. New DVRs - ULTIMAX 104 M71040 and ULTIMAX 204 M72040 are good examples of professional equipment for a reasonable price.
Similarly to well known 304 and 504 models, the new recorders use H.264 compression. In spite of small size, the DVRs can record 4CIF images at 6 fps from each channel.
Their unique feature is capability of cooperation with multiple (even tens) DVRs of the same type or with any members of ULTIMAX family, in one video surveillance system. It is possible to connect IP cameras, which allows to build really large and extensive systems.
ULTIMAX DVRs of 100 and 200 series have 4 video channels. The smallest system may contain only one DVR and four CCTV cameras and can be easily extended by additional DVRs and cameras.
The systems can be managed by ULTIMAX Client software - supplied with the DVRs, or by professional ULTISYSTEM software (K3216) allowing to integrate ULTIMAX DVRs with megapixel cameras of ULTICAM series, e.g. K1441, or with other IP cameras from the world's leading manufacturers.
ULTIMAX recorders are appreciated by the users for their perfect operation in IP networks.
Outdoor Color CCTV Camera: VF-515 IR/B<br /> (with 4-9 mm varifocal lens and IR illuminator)Network DVR: ULTIMAX-104 (H.264, 4 channels)CCTV 19Network DVR: ULTIMAX-204 (H.264, 4 channels)
An example of extensible CCTV system based on ULTIMAX DVRs
Mobile system for monitoring mass events with ACTi cameras. In most countries organizers of mass events are obliged by law to ensure safety of the people. Proper security level can be obtained by employing the police and security staff, as a large number of people concentrated in one place requires professional surveillance. Often, in spite of large forces protecting such events, it is difficult to avoid hazardous incidents. It is becoming increasingly popular to use for this purpose video surveillance means.

The use of CCTV monitoring allows to:
  • organize command post allowing to improve the effectiveness of security patrols,
  • limit the number of the staff involved in the protection by targeting patrols to places of risk,,
  • record video evidence in the event of a crime,
  • build a psychological barrier for potential aggressors.
The equipment and software used for field monitoring should be of high quality fulfilling the requirements for video monitoring of mass events, easy for assembly and installation, reliable. All these features have PTZ cameras ACTi K1216, ULTISYSTEM software K3204, wireless links based on ULTIAIR N2300 access points. The surveillance data is recorded on a PC. Deployment and installation of pre-configured system takes about 2-3 hours.

The organizers of Days of Myslenice, July 31 - August 2, 2009, another time entrusted ARNDEX company with building mobile CCTV system.
Myslenice - a beautiful town near Krakow - has one of the most modern and effective city monitoring systems in Poland. The authorities of the city, having good experience with the video surveillance system, decided to employ for monitoring of the event the same kind of equipment and software.

Monitoring center in a tent
We invite you to describe implemented systems.
The author gets "Chameleon mug".
How to get "Chameleon mug"?
From communication model to MIMO - a few words on WiFi - part 1. The issues of data exchange (mail, VoIP etc.) between computers communicating over a network have been developed as communication models. The first widespread model was TCP/IP - a description framework for computer network protocols created in the 1970s. ISO/OSI (International Standardization Organization/Open Systems Interconnection) is a further development of this idea. Both models use concept of layers. The method of designing modular communication protocols (layers) in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects is called encapsulation.
The basic principle is that the communication is possible only between pairs of objects from the same layer, only using the services offered by lower layers. Each layer is described by specific communication protocol between equivalent objects of the layer, and set of communication services for the neighboring upper layer. (Protocol is a set of strict rules and steps that are performed automatically by the network devices to establish communication and data exchange).

TCP/IP model is based on four layers:
  • application layer
  • transport layer
  • internet layer
  • link layer.
ISO/OSI model comprises seven layers:
  • application layer
  • presentation layer
  • session layer
  • transport layer
  • network layer
  • data link layer
  • physical layer.
In order to ensure the communication between devices, it is necessary to define at least the layer of access to the network.

The documents of the IEEE 802.11 set of standards describe physical layer Medium Access Control (MAC), which is included in the data link layer.

The physical layers include:
  • IR (Infra Red),
  • FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum);
  • DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
  • OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation).
The latest 802.11n standard introduces transmitting and receiving signals by two antennas at the same time. This principle is called MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). The data is transmitted on the same frequency and at the same time by two antennas. The aim is to utilize the phenomenon of multipath propagation (up to now mainly negative) to improve transmission performance.

Poor GSM signal? The problems occur in markets, tunnels, underground car parks, petrol stations, airport halls, hotels. A similar situation can be found in buildings located on the border range of base stations (recreational areas, mountains etc).
The solution to this problem is application of GSM repeater, being a two-way amplifier of wireless GSM signal, which significantly improves the quality of data transmission in such places, reducing noise and number of lost connections.
The following questions have to be answered to select suitable GSM repeater and accessories:

  • How much area is to be covered with the amplified GSM signal?
    • If up to 80m2 - the suitable device is the repeater Signal GSM-80 A6740,
    • If above the previous area, and up to 300m2 - the suitable device is the repeater Signal GSM-300 A6760,
    • If above 300m2 - the suitable device is the repeater Signal GSM-300 A6760 with several A6800 indoor antennas.
  • How strong is the signal outside the building?
    • If the signal is very weak, the suitable outdoor GSM antenna is 20-element ATK 20/850-960 MHz A7028, directed towards the base station.
    • If the signal is weak or moderate, the suitable outdoor GSM antenna is 10-element ATK 20/850-960 MHz A7018, directed towards the base station.

Model of repeater
Signal GSM-80Signal GSM-300
Frequency rangeUp Link: 890-915MHz, Down Link 935-960MHz,Up Link: 890-915MHz, Down Link 935-960MHz,
Output power
UL: 5dBm, DL: 5dBmUL: 15dBm, DL: 15dBm
GainUP: 35dB, DL: 45dBUP: 50dB, DL: 60dB
Coverage area
In-band ripple<3dB<3dB
Maximum group delay 1.5 µs1.5us
Out-of-band spurious emission< -40dBm < -40dBm
Impedance50Ω 50Ω
Antenna connectors
out. antenna: N-f, ind. antenna SMA socket,out. antenna: N-f,ind. antenna N-f
10V DC10V DC
Operating temperature range
-25°C to +55°C-25°C to +55°C
Operating relative humidity5%-95%5%-95%
Dimensions [mm]130x85x35293x148x35

Monako LCD/plasma mounts. Products from Monako family are used for mounting flat panels - televisions, computer monitors or similar displays. The variety of models allows to choose optimum solution for the user and their device.
Monako mounts include LCD/plasma as well as projector mounts and aesthetic DVD shelves.
Monako mounts are characterized by modern design and high quality of materials. The materials used ensure stable parameters over the whole lifetime of the products. Carefully designed and stable mounts are made of steel, are durable and easy to install.

The MIS (Mounting Interface Standard) and FDMI (Flat Display Mounting Interface) standards of installation of flat panels (LCD/plasma monitors and televisions) have been developed by VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association). Originally there has been accepted MIS-D standard, with 100mm distances between the mounting hole centers, arranged in a square - for typical panels, and 75mm counterpart - for smaller monitors/televisions. There are used M4x10 screws to fix the panel to the mount. Since 2006 the standard family has been extended by MIS-F versions - for larger screens - 31-90 inches (79-230 cm).

There are two possibilities of selecting the appropriate mount/arm. In the case of a universal mount the manufacturer gives the range of screen size of the panels that the mount is suitable for. When assuming a specific screw pattern, the producer informs about it, specifying e.g. VESA MIS-D 100, 100 x 100 mm etc.

"Engagingly about antennas" - more and more pictures. So far we have received tens of interesting "antenna" photos. We are still waiting for new entries from our readers - the closing date is September 30, 2009.
As the holiday ends, many of the photos sent for the competition come from journeys and voyages through the world. We invite everyone to see the works sent to date.
Engagingly about Antennas - VIII DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2009
Engagingly about Antennas - VIII DIPOL Holiday Photo Contest 2009
Night over Velky Javorovy I
Jan Kondziolka
Evidence for the existence of Mc Gyver
Mateusz Kaczmarek
- please do click on the picture
In the homestead
Joanna Potorska

We have written about:

9-cable system - multiswitch installations. The most flexible multiswitch installations in multi-story buildings are based on 9-cable system (signals from two Quatro LNBs and terrestrial TV antenna). On each floor we employ the splitter providing signals to multiswitches. It allows to shape the network according to actual requirements - we may deploy practically unlimited number of outlets...
- archive DWR of Jan. 14, 2008

How to use wireless connectivity to develop the network at home or office. We present solutions based on TP-LINK devices...
- archive DWR of Sept. 8, 2008

How to use wireless connectivity to extend the network. Internet access is nowadays indispensable in any office, store, or hotel. It can be easily distributed among many users by wireless means...
- archive DWR of Jan. 19, 2009

Index of published issues
George Popescu
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