Coşul este gol



DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 11/2010 (March 15, 2010)
Three-dimensional television without glasses. The idea of making screens for displaying 3D images, allowing to view the 3D imaging without special glasses, consists in mounting special screens or arrays of cylindrical lenses. In both cases the result of the action is to provide different images to the left and right eye.
There have been emerging two "auto-stereoscopic" technologies:
  • parallax barrier
  • lenticular lenses
The mainstream 3D technologies require glasses,
but the future systems will be autostereoscopic
Parallax barrier method uses a layer of opaque material with a series of precision vertical slits being a part of the screen. The diaphragm with the slits allows the left and right eye to see different sets of pixels, creating a sense of depth through parallax.
Location of the slits interacts with the possible positions of both eyes against the screen. Three-dimensional effects in this technology require appropriate preparation of the video content. Each frame, called stereogram, is created by combining two images - for the right and left eye. So created image allows for seeing 3D effect just opposite to the screen (in perpendicular direction), which is why the latest imaging technologies adopt interleaved images from multiple sources (panoramagrams). As a result, the number of points where viewers can see clear, sharp and three-dimensional image is significantly increased.
Auto-stereoscopic methods of displaying 3D images.
It seems that lenticular lenses are more prospective,
due to better color reproduction and higher brightness.
The second technology, gaining increasing popularity, uses lenticular lenses. In this case, the video material is subjected to similar treatment, but the images are differentiated using another method. Each Full HD LCD panel consists of approximately two million pixels, which in turn can be divided into sub-pixels (red, blue and green). The method consists in imposing an array of lenses, each of which covering 8 sub-pixels. The accuracy of the coverage is incredible - it reaches 1/100 of a micron.
Three-dimensional images can be viewed in so many places how many panoramagrams have been made. At the CES in Las Vegas (January 2010) there were shown televisions allowing to watch 3D imaging from eight positions. The latest achievement in this field was presented by Sunny Ocean Studio company at the CeBIT in Hanover - a 27-inch monitor allowing to view three-dimensional images from 64 angles. The problem is the proper preparation of the material, since it is necessary to render 64 different frames of the image at the same time.
CeBIT 2010 - a panorama of the event. Even critics of CeBIT agree that no other trade fair reflects so well the latest market trends in this field of technology.
IT industry is faring relatively well. It currently implements solutions based on "cloud computing" - that is a model based on the use of services supplied by outside companies. This eliminates the need to purchase licenses, to install and administrate the software. A breakthrough, similar to Google Adwords in advertising, can be the Amazon Web Services computing platform presented at this year's fair, delivering a set of services for data storage and processing.
Observation of this year's stands allows to form the opinion that we have another year of stagnation in telecommunications. New mobile technologies, particularly 4G, were still shown in the study phase. Equipment manufacturers and mobile operators are focused on the use of the already available technologies, and popularize services such as navigation, payments with mobile phones, health monitoring. Generally, we can see a shift toward smartphones.
Consumer electronics seems to be overwhelmed by 3D solutions, but they are still in their infancy, expressing mainly the producers' hopes for a new impulse for product and market development. Variety of solutions using glasses and others, based on autostereoscopic techniques, does not allow to think about adoption of a universal standard in the near future.
Does the crisis end? - CeBIT 2010
Does the crisis end? - CeBIT 2010
Does the crisis end? - CeBIT 2010
Does the crisis end? - report from CeBIT 2010
Signal measurements in modern antenna systems - DVB-S, DVB-S2, DVB-T, DVB-H, DVB-C. Combined professional analyzer Rover Scout ST2+ R10830 enables professionals to measure and analyze digital signals (DVB-S, DVB-S2, DVB-T, DVB-H, DVB-C) and analog signals (terrestrial, cable and satellite TV) - within the frequency range of 47-2250 MHz.

The ST2+ meter can measure signal levels (analog signals) or channel power (digital signals), as well as:

- in the case of analog television:
  • video subcarrier level
  • audio subcarrier level
  • rate of video subcarrier level to audio subcarrier level
- in the case of digital terrestrial television:
  • aBER and bBER
  • MER
  • noise margin
  • constellation diagram
- in the case of digital satellite television:
  • aBER (QPSK) and bBER
  • PER (8PSK)
  • MER
  • EVM
  • constellation diagram
aBER - after Viterbi Bit-Error-Rate, also known as VBER, Post-Viterbi BER or BER before Reed-Salomon correction - determines the number of erroneous bits to the total number of received bits, sent during a given time interval, after Viterbi correction, but before Reed-Solomon correction.
bBER - Bit-Error-Rate before Viterbi correction, also known as CBER (Channel Bit-Error-Rate) or Pre-Viterbi BER.
aBER is usually about a million times smaller than bBER.
MER - Modulation Error Rate.
Noise margin - the amount by which the signal exceeds the minimum amount indispensable for proper reception.
PER - Packet Error Rate - determines the ratio of incorrectly transmitted packets to all received. The packet is invalid even if only one bit is erroneous. The expected value of PER is the probability of the presence of an erroneous bit.
Constellation diagram - graphical representation of a digitally modulated signal (e.g. using QAM or PSK modulation). It represents the signal as a two-dimensional graph on the complex plane. The features of the constellation diagram can be used to identify the types of interference or distortion of the signal.
EVM - Error Vector Magnitude, also known as RCE (Receive Constellation Error). EVM determines how far the constellation points deviate from the theoretical pattern.
Signal multiswitches - economic and reliable. SIGNAL multiswitch series consists of 8 models at very attractive prices, enabling distribution of satellite signals from one or two satellites (usually HotBird and Astra) to 4, 8, 12 or 16 outlets. Active terrestrial paths allow to mix in terrestrial FM and TV broadcasts, including DVB-T.
Maximum output levels of 101 dBuV (sat path) and 85 dBuV (terrestrial path) are appropriate for good image quality at distances up to 60-70 m from the multiswitch. The multiswitches have built-in compensation of cable attenuation. This eliminates the impact of cable attenuation with increasing frequency.
The important parameter of multiswitches is isolation between inputs and between outputs. In this respect, Signal series ensures results similar to the best equipment, with isolation of 30 dB. It eliminates any problems with interference between channels broadcast on different polarization/band pairs, which occur in the case of using low-grade equipment.
QUATRO LNB: Opticum/Orton LTP-04H Premium 0.1dBSecond LNB mount (for FAMAVAL dishes with rectangular arms)UHF TV antenna: DIPOL 19/21-69 DIGITALOffset Satellite Dish: 100cm, painted galvanized steel, A-E mount2-Way TV/FM Splitter R-2 Signal9/4 Multiswitch: Signal MP-0904 (active terrestrial TV)TV/SAT Wall Plate: Signal R-TV-SAT (terminal)DVB-S Receiver: FERGUSON Ariva 200TV Modulator: Terra MT-29P (multi-standard, ch.1-69 &S9-S17)
Example of terrestrial/satellite antenna system
in a single-family home, based on Signal R6944804
This scheme can be successfully applied in single-family houses. The combined terrestrial and satellite signals are available in all outlets. In many cases there is no need for a satellite receiver in each room. However, the satellite program chosen at a moment in the "main" room can be made available in all other rooms - thanks to the R871729 modulator.
Professional CCTV monitor from Samsung. Professional CCTV monitor SAMSUNG SMT-1922P M3019 is designed for continuous operation in both analog and digital video monitoring systems. Its modern TFT-LCD screen is protected by vandal resistant tempered glass. Monitors of this series can also be used for PCs - in places or for applications that require high durability and vandal-proof protection.
The implemented DNIe(TM) function (Digital Natural Image engine) improves image quality through advanced algorithms - of noise reduction, detail emphasizing, contrast and brightness optimization. New image processing algorithms allow to obtain clearer, more detailed images. DNIe(TM) technology improves image quality regardless of signal level.
PIP and PBP functions allow a comfortable work with two signal sources such as surveillance cameras and a local computer.
The TFT-LCD panel is covered with a pane of tempered glass which ensures the highest protection level (striking with an object) and protects against scratches (during cleaning).
Professional CCTV Monitor: SAMSUNG SMT-1922P (19
Professional CCTV monitor SAMSUNG SMT-1922P M3019 is designed for continuous operation
in both analog and digital video monitoring systems
The implemented DNIe(TM) functions (Digital Natural Image engine) improve moving images,
provide fine detail, enhance contrast, optimize colors
CCTV in a new supermarket chain. A new chain of stores under the name of Wellworths opened in March 2009. The new stores have been founded on the basis of Woolworths supermarkets. Offering a similar range of goods, they have to cope with a big problem, which is theft.
Claire Robertson, the founder of Wellworths, chose an ACTi solution - megapixel IP CCTV system that would allow to limit losses caused by shoplifting. Taking into account other options, including European CCTV systems, the quality and price of the Taiwanese system decided upon the choice. The decisive factors included the high quality of images from ACTi cameras and unbeatable prices comparing to similar equipment. The optimum cameras for that purpose were ACM-4201 K1514. Already during the first weekend they helped to prevent three theft attempts!
Megapixel IP Camera: ACTi ACM-4201
Megapixel CCTV camera
ACTi ACM-4201 K1514
Image from ACTi camera
at Wellworths'
Megapixel IP Camera: ACTi ACM-4201
Diagram of the megapixel IP CCTV
Big money at stake - video surveillance of a 24-hour casino with ULTICAM cameras. The 5-star Atlantic Palace Hotel in Agadir, Morocco is a luxury leisure center overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. A part of the hotel complex is the casino, a meeting place of many celebrities. In order to increase safety and ensure smooth operation of the casino, the board of the hotel decided to install modern CCTV system in this part of the building.
The casino in the Atlantic Palace Hotel in Agadir, Morocco
The main criterion for selection of monitoring equipment was image quality. The security center should capture all possible threats: pickpocketing, theft of chips, substitution of cards and dices, card counting. The security staff is also responsible for assessment of visitors' behavior and appropriate responses.
The supplier of the modern equipment was HIKVISION company - manufacturer of high quality digital video recorders and CCTV cameras. Most of the cameras were megapixel IP cameras. Due to existing Ethernet infrastructure, the installation of the equipment did not require new wiring and took very little time. There were employed Hikvision IP cameras, also known in Europe as ULTICAM cameras: K1140, K1440, K1441.
ULTICAM IP camera K1140 provides images with 4CIF resolution. Its 1/3" SONY Super HAD CCD sensor ensures high detail. The camera utilizes H.264 compression, saving bandwidth of the network and disk space.
The most sensitive areas, such as game tables and cash desks, are monitored with 2.0 Mpx cameras. They enable the surveillance officer to enlarge the images without significant loss of quality. The example is ULTICAM DS-2CD852F K1440 camera with 1/3" CMOS sensor, with resolution of 1600 x 1200 (UXGA) and sensitivity of 2 lx, in a durable housing. The camera also allows for audio transmission. The less lit areas can be monitored with day/night IP cameras ULTICAM K1441. They can be powered using PoE, e.g. from M1890 power supply.
In addition to high performance, easy installation and operation, Hikvision equipment has a very important advantage in comparison with other solutions: is universal and can cooperate with many other systems that have already been installed. An example is the expansion of the existing security system in the Atlantic Palace Hotel, as well as in many other installations in the world. The users speak with one voice that the installed systems meet the requirements, and the installation companies rank the company among the top manufacturers on the international market.
Home LAN/WLAN system with wireless access to the Web, and IP CCTV monitoring. Modern home computer system can integrate:
  • wireless access points,
  • desktop PCs,
  • laptops,
  • NAS (Network-attached storage),
  • network printers,
  • IP CCTV cameras,
  • NVR (Network Video Recorder) - for recording video and sound streams from CCTV cameras,
  • televisions,
  • satellite receivers,
  • game consoles.
As shown below, the Internet access is provided wirelessly through the access point integrated with antenna. This allows to connect the AP with the interior network with twisted pair cable (UTP). Choice of the device depends on the frequency at which the signal is delivered from the local ISP (in the example - 5 GHz).
  • router - allows to connect many computer to the LAN, with the use of one external IP address,
  • AP - access point supporting "n" standard - allows wireless data transmission at speeds up to 300 Mb/s,
  • Gigabit switch - supports the wired part of the network, allows data transmission speeds up to 1000 Mb/s,
  • USB port allows to connect an external HDD available for all computers in the LAN,
  • built-in firewall improves security of the LAN.
Wireless Access Point: ULTIAIR 319KCOutdoor Megapixel IP Camera: ACTi ACM-1231Access Point TP-Link TL-WR1043N (w. router &GbE switch, 802.11n, 300Mbps)Outdoor Megapixel IP Camera: ACTi ACM-12318-port Gigabit Ethernet Switch: TP-Link TL-SG1008D8-port Gigabit Ethernet Switch: TP-Link TL-SG1008DNetwork Video Recorder: NUUO NV-2040IP VGA Camera: ACTi ACM-4001IP VGA Camera: ACTi ACM-4001Multifunction Peripheral (MFP) &Storage Server<br /> TP-LINK TL-PS310U
The network presented above consists of two main parts:
  • network linking computers and home multimedia devices,
  • IP CCTV network with IP cameras and NVR.
Each of these subnetworks uses own Gigabit switch. This solution ensures scalability of the network (successive expansion) and ensures increased reliability. Gigabit switches are the basis for implementing high-speed networks that transfer multimedia files and streaming media.
IP CCTV monitoring system consists of IP cameras and network video recorder (NVR). The IP cameras may have VGA or megapixel resolutions (1.3 - 5.0 Mpx).
Functions of the IP CCTV system:
  • NVR records the video streams from the IP cameras,
  • each computer of the home network allows to monitor live video streams the archive files from the NVR,
  • special configuration of the router allows to access CCTV data on the Internet.
Features of the multimedia PC network:
  • all connected devices can access the Internet,
  • all connected devices can access the NAS that stores and plays back multimedia files,
  • network printer/s can print files from any computer,
  • USB devices (scanner, loudspeakers, web camera etc.) can cooperate with the network via Multifunction Peripheral (MFP) &Storage Server (N3312).
The satellite receivers and televisions with Internet connectivity enable the users to:
  • watch movies on YouTube,
  • browse websites dedicated for SAT receivers,
  • listen to Internet radio,
  • upgrade the firmware.
We have written about:

IP video surveillance in Arcelor Mittal plant. Arcelor Mittal is the world's largest steel producer. Its plant located in Romania has been protected by a video monitoring system based on three four-channel ACTi ACD-2200 K2118 video servers, four SED-2140T K2114 video servers with broader range of operating temperature, and eight ACD-1431 K1118 MPEG-4 IP cameras (outdoor, with IR illuminator). Totally, the centralized monitoring system includes 26 channels...
Wireless transmission of data over long distances. To create long wireless links one should take into account the following factors:
- Suitable computing power. An important parameter of the device for data transmission is the amount of RAM. Devices for SOHO market have max. 16 MB of RAM. This amount does not allow to transmit large amounts of packets - it is not possible to create an efficient link. Professional devices have more than twice the memory, so the transmission can be performed at high speeds (up 25 Mbps in both directions)...

Safe cables. Safety regulations for public buildings that house many people (hospitals, schools, theaters) require that during a fire the cabling cannot pose an additional threat to the life or health of the people. The cables have to be halogen free (HF) - they cannot give off toxic gases. When burned, the cables also cannot feed the fire, emit thick or corrosive fumes...

Index of published issues
George Popescu
Consiliere clienţi
Dacă doriţi să primiţi Săptămânalul Dipol prin email, introduceţi adresa:
Nou în bibliotecă
Regulamentul | Garanție | Reclamaţii | Download
| Cookies | Politica de confidentialitate Toate drepturile rezervate © 1996-2024 DIPOL sp.j.