No. 16/2024 (April 15, 2024)

Why is standardization of time on the Moon needed?

At the behest of White House officials, NASA is to develop Coordinated Lunar Time (LTC), a new time standard for use during lunar missions, by 2026. Why cannot the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) be used on the Moon? Scientists say that for space missions (both manned and unmanned), timing precision is of paramount importance. Differences in gravitational forces on the Moon and other celestial bodies change the way time passes there compared to that on Earth.
Clocks and time zones on Earth operate on the basis of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). It was introduced in 1960 as the successor to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which had been used as the global time standard since 1884. It is based on a vast global network of atomic clocks located in various places on Earth. They measure changes in the state of the atoms and generate an average, which ultimately constitutes precise time. UTC is neither a time zone nor a specific place. Rather, it is an abstract concept that allows time to be coordinated around the world. In practice, UTC serves as a reference point for all time zones around the world, which are expressed as the addition or subtraction of a certain number of hours from UTC.
Less gravity on the Moon makes each day – compared to Earth – 58.7 microseconds shorter. There are also other deviations (related, among other things, to the distribution of mass on the planet) that can lead to greater discrepancies between the time on the Moon and Earth's clock. Scientists are faced with the choice of a measurement method, but the prevailing belief is that it will be necessary to set atomic time standards on the surface of our natural satellite.
The introduction of uniform lunar time eliminates the need for local time operations, making it easier to synchronize communications between Earth, satellites, bases and astronauts. Time discrepancies can also lead to errors in mapping and locating the positions of equipment or people on the Moon and in its orbit. The establishment of LTC is particularly important in the context of plans to return humans to the Moon and to build permanent bases on the Moon. A lunar landing is planned for 2026 with the Artemis III mission. The landing will be guided by new timing arrangements.

Dual verification of access rights to Sunell DVR recordings.

The operator of a monitoring system most often accesses the DVR through an account with limited privileges. It usually allows for a preview of current images from cameras, while viewing archives requires logging in to an account with higher privileges.
If the operator wants to access the recordings, additional credentials of the administrator account are required. Once the credentials are provided, the operator remains logged into their account, but gains temporary access to view recordings.
The dual authentication feature works for both local and remote access (via the browser and Sunview CMS).
Enabling dual authentication
Message during playback from a web browser

New fiber optic splicer in Dipol's offer: Sendun SD-9+.

Dipol now offers a new model of fiber optic splicer. Sendun is a brand of Chinese fiber optic splicer manufacturer Tumtec. This manufacturer has nearly 20 years of experience in the production of this type of equipment, offering models for various purposes. The Sendun SD-9+ L5877 model is designed for general use: FTTH connections, all kinds of LAN connections, CTTV, etc. It allows making permanent connections with low attenuation.
Sendun SD-9+ fiber optic splicer, box + tool set
Sendun SD-9+ L5877 splicer
Key features of the model include:
  • 6 motors for positioning of fibers,
  • 4-core processor for high-speed operation,
  • positioning to the core or to the fiber sheath,
  • Auto mode or one of 41 presets,
  • embedded optical power meter and visual fault locator VFL,
  • image magnification x380,
  • speed of motors,
  • min. splicing time of 5 seconds,
  • min. splicing time of 40 mm splice shroud 11 s,
  • 4.3'' touch display,
  • 7200 mAh battery allowing to perform an average of 320 cycles of splice + seal,
  • life of electrodes – about 5000 splices,
  • universal fiber holders,
  • practical, capacious box,
  • rich set of accessories,
  • cutter with autorotation function,
  • menu in English or Polish.
Individual functions are described in more detail in the data sheet of the device. One of the exciting features is the ability to make a splice with a user-specified attenuation. This allows, for example, to adjust the power at the input of the optical receiver to an acceptable level without using an external attenuator.
The pictures above show a test of the operation of the attenuator function on a fiber optic splice. The test consisted of verifying the power at the input of the optical power meter after connecting a light source to it using a single patchcord (-5.89 dBm). The patchcord was cut and then spliced using SM ATT, a program for creating an optical power attenuator on the splice. An attenuation value of 2.0 dB was set. The power obtained after welding on the optical power meter (-7.62 dBm) was lower than the initial power by 1.73 dB, which should be considered close to the expected 2 dB.
Window edition of the SM ATT program. Attenuation is achieved by reciprocal fiber offset. It should be borne in mind that the attenuation values achieved may differ slightly from those expected. The value of the attenuation set on the splice should also not be overstated. Values above 2-3 dB, although possible to set, should nevertheless be implemented by an external attenuator.

Optical-copper DVB-T2 and DVB-S/S2 system in a hotel complex.

An owner of a large hotel complex ordered the installation of terrestrial TV providing signals in the new DVB-T2 standard and DVB-S/S2 satellite signals. The installation was to cover 5 facilities. The TV system would distribute signals in the new DVB-T2 standard from a local transmitter, and 15 FTA satellite programs in the form of digital DVB-T signals. For that purpose, a solution based on TERRA equipment has been chosen.
To ensure the distribution of terrestrial TV signals of the best possible quality and to equalize the signal levels at the input of the system, the contractor has decided to use programmable multi-band amplifier PROFINO Revolution 6711 R89062. Reception and distribution of satellite programs is possible with the use of tdx-480 R81621 transmodulator. The configuration of the panels shown in the diagram allows to receive 16 satellite programs in Full HD quality from 8 transponders.
UHF TV DVB-T/T2 Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-48 Tri DigitFM Antenna: Dipol 1RUZ PM B (omnidirectional H+V)DAB / DVB-T/T2 Antenna: DIPOL 7/5-12LNB: QUATRO Inverto HOME ProSwitching Power Supply Terra PS202F (20V 2A, Digital SCR)Single-cable Cascadable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-522 (950...2150MHz/290...2340MHz, class A, passive terr. TV path)Power Supply: TERRA UP413 (12V/4.5A, for Terra modules)Four-channel Amplifier: Terra at440 (UHF, DVB-T, AGC) Multiband Amplifier Terra ma400 (FM/VHF/UHF)DVB-S/S2 (8PSK, QPSK) to 8xDVB-T (COFDM) Transmodulator: TERRA TDX-481 (FTA)TV Optical Transmitter: TERRA mo418 4D31 (1x6dBm, 1310nm)Optical Splitter: Terra so414 (1x4)Flush TV/FM Outlet: GAR-TVP8/RS5 (end-of-line)Optical Node TERRA OD-005P (FTTH receiver)Optical Node TERRA OD-005P (FTTH receiver)Optical Node TERRA OD-005P (FTTH receiver)Optical Node TERRA OD-005P (FTTH receiver)3-Way TV/FM Splitter R-3 Signal8-way Tap: FAC-8-20dB (5-1000MHz)Satellite Dish FAMAVAL TRX-EL 110 [dark]Multi-channel Filter Amplifier: Johansson PROFINO Revolution 6711 (FM-DAB/VHF-2xUHF, digitally programmed)
Diagram of the optical and copper system for 5 hotel facilities with DVB-T2 signal distribution (4 digital terrestrial TV multiplexes and 8 multiplexes from the tdx-480 R81621 transmodulator). Part of the source signal was allocated to the local subnet (the building with the service room). Single-mode optical fibers were connected to the remaining buildings.
The DVB-T/T2 signal prepared for distribution is transmitted to other buildings via single-mode optical fiber. The mo418 4D31 R82522 optical transmitter with a laser power of 6 dBm was used to for that purpose. Moreover, the so414 R82527 optical splitter is mounted on the same DIN R82538 rail to divide the signal into four optical paths. The transmitter is powered by the DR-60-12 12V/4.5A R82532 power supply. The inverse conversion of the signal from the optical medium to copper wire is performed in hotel buildings by TERRA OD-005P R81760 optical nodes. The maximum signal level at the output of the node is 107 dBµV which allows the TV signal to be distributed to several dozen R62120 sockets without the need of additional amplifiers. In such a configuration of optical fiber devices, the DVB-T/T2 signal can be transmitted to a distance of up to 12 km.

Switches for harsh conditions.

Industrial switches are dedicated to industrial facilities where adverse conditions such as increased dust, high or low temperature, or high humidity are possible. Installation of industrial switches is also recommended for overhead cabling on poles or in cable chambers, with the use of sealed enclosures. The switches have Ethernet ports (Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet depending on the model) for connecting of such devices as IP cameras or PCs. ULTIPOWER Industrial Switches have an enclosure that meets the IP40 standard (protection against access to hazardous parts, protection against foreign solids with a diameter of more than 1 mm).

Industrial PoE Switch: ULTIPOWER 192SFP 802.3af/at (8xPoE FE, 2xSFP 1000M, Extended, VLAN, PoE Auto Check, Hi-PoE)
ULTIPOWER 192SFP industrial PoE switch 8xFE(6x PoE 802.3af/at + 2x HiPoE 90W), 1xGE, 2xSFP 802.3af/at, PoE Auto-Check N299704
The devices also have the following additional functions:
  • Extended function that enables powering devices connected with twisted pair with a length of up to 250 m,
  • PoE Auto Check automatically performs current restart of the connected device in the event of hanging.
  • HiPoE 90 W support for ports 1 and 2 (N299704 switch only),
  • PD function enables the switch to be powered via Ethernet port (N299707 switch only).
Key features:
  • Ingress protection rating: IP40
    • The digits after IP classify and rate the degree of protection provided against intrusion of solid particles (first digit) and water (second digit) to the inside of the housing. The housings of ULTIPOWER switches are rated IP40, which means that the devices are protected against particles with diameter above 1 mm, e.g. most wires, screws etc.
  • Power supply: DC 12-57 V
    • ULTIPOWER industrial switches have a wide range of power supply voltages. This gives the possibility of system in places where standard mains voltage is not available.
  • Possibility of connecting two power supplies (the main and redundant)
    • ULTIPOWER industrial switches can be powered simultaneously from two power sources, even with different voltages. In the event that the first power source fails (e.g. traditional AC/DC adapter), the device will be powered from the other source (e.g. solar panel, rechargeable batteriy). It is the ideal solution in order to maintain stable and continuous operation.
  • Power consumption: <6 W (without PoE)
    • The power consumption of the devices is very low, below 6 W (without using PoE).
  • Ethernet ports
    • Depending on the model, the switches have one to four 10/100 Mbps or 10/100/100 Mbps Ethernet ports. The auto MDI-X ports detect if the connection requires a crossover, and automatically choose the MDI or MDI-X configuration to properly match the other end of the link.
  • PoE ports
    • All Ethernet ports can power PoE devices (PD). They are compliant with 802.3af standard. For the use of the PoE function it is necessary to supply the switches with 48 VDC voltage.
  • Fiber optic transmission
    • Switches allow data transmission via fiber optic cable (switches have SFP slot). The transmission rate can be 100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps (depending on the model).
  • Wide operating temperature range
    • The device can operate in environments where the temperature ranges from -35 to 65°C. As a result, the switches can be used in cold stores, indoors and outdoors or on light poles.
  • Permissible ambient humidity
    • The relative humidity can be within 5...95% range.
  • Broad range of atmospheric pressure
    • The devices can be used in locations with atmospheric pressure within 800...1100 hPa.
  • DIN-rail compatibility
    • The switches can be mounted on DIN rails (thanks to a special hold on the rear panel).

Batch activation of Hikvision network devices and changing their IP addresses with SADP.

SADP ( Search Active Device Protocol) is free and easy to use software designed to search for Hikvision IP cameras, DVRs and video intercoms on the local network. Using it you can modify their basic network parameters, activate devices and change or restore passwords. SADP is particularly useful when building large CCTV or video intercom systems. Newly purchased devices have to be activated by assigning passwords. In addition to that, the IP addresses of the devices are repeated so there would be a conflict of IP addresses when all of them were connected to the network at the same time. While in the case of a few devices it is possible to connect them one by one, activate and change IP address via a browser (if the device has built-in webserver), for large e.g. CCTV systems with 32 IP cameras, it would be very laborious and time-consuming. After connecting all devices, SADP running on the local network will detect them as inactive. Selecting them all , allows for a quick batch activation of the devices by assigning an administrator password. For DVRs, it is also necessary to enter the password for activating cameras. Upon acceptance, a window will appear confirming the activation of the devices.
View of activation window and properly completed process.
When this step is finished, you can proceed to batch addressing of the devices. To do so, select all the devices and complete the network parameters, as shown in the following image. The devices will be addressed one by one starting from the IP address that has been entered. When the password with which the cameras have been activated is entered, a window with information about the changes will appear.

New products offered by DIPOL

Modulator Signal HDMI – 1xCOFDM (DVB-T)
Signal HDMI modulator – 1xCOFDM (DVB-T) R86301 is a device that modulates the input signal in Full HD resolution (1920x1080-60p) given to the HDMI connector in DVB-T COFDM standard. The device is a single-channel modulator. This means that it is possible to connect a single signal source to it and modulate it into a DVB-T digital multiplex. The device is an excellent alternative to systems based on splitters and HDMI cables.
HikCentral-P-ANPR-1Ch Licence for 1 ANPR channel of HikCentral Professional software Hikvision
HikCentral-P-ANPR-1Ch License for 1 ANPR channel of HikCentral Professional software Hikvision K06025 is an expansion package for HikCentral Professional software, allowing you to connect and manage 1 ANPR camera. It includes all the functions of the ANPR module and enables management of a vehicle list, a search in the history of recognised number plates, an alarm when matching/mismatching a number plate, etc. For correct operation, the HikCentral-P-VSS-Base/0Ch K06019 basic package is required.

PC-1303D-3 multimode patch cord 2xSC - 2xLC, duplex, OM3, 3m
Multi-mode patchcord PC-1303D-3 2xSC – 2xLC, duplex, OM3, 3m L3321303_3 is a 3 mlong section of multi-mode fiber optic cable terminated with SC and LC connectors. ULTIMODE patchcords are made and tested in accordance with the guidelines of the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 613000-3-34 and IEC 61300-3-6 standards. Each pigtail is accompanied by an appropriate label confirming the compliance of the parameters (insertion loss and reflection loss) with the class defined by the above-mentioned standards. Fiber standard: OM3.

Worth reading

Measurements in fiber optic systems. Part 1 – general description of methods. Among the measurement methods defined by PN-ISO/IEC 14763-3 and PN-EN 61280-4-2 standards, those related to the so-called basic and extended tests can be distinguished. Basic tests ("Tier 1") make it possible to determine the compliance of a completed channel or fixed link with the requirements of a given application (e.g., one of the Ethernet applications) and possible certification of the network. Extended tests ("Tier 2") are usually used in addition to the basic test, or in situations where the basic test gives a negative result and it is necessary to thoroughly verify the reason for this.
The aforementioned standards defining parameters, methods and measurement procedures are directly related to structured cabling standards: ISO/IEC 11801 and EN 50173. Installers implementing such networks and performing certification should strictly adhere to the rules defined in the standards and use equipment that allows such tests and the issuance of the applicable certificate. In practice, the permissible devices to be used are defined in the warranty conditions of the structured cabling manufacturer...>>>more
A series of ULTIMODE devices for testing and measuring fiber optic installations.
SMART CITY DVB/T2 antenna with bypass up to 40 km from the transmitter